Marketing 330 Chapter 6

Consumer Behavior
Processes a consumer uses to make purchase decisions, as well as to use and dispose of purchased goods or services; also includes factors that influence purchase decisions and product use
Consumer Decision-Making Process
1. Need Recognition
2. Information Search
3. Evaluation of Alternatives
4. Purchase
5. Post Purchase Behavior
Need Recognition
Result of an imbalance between actual and desired states
Want
the way a consumer goes about addressing a need
Internal Information Search
the process of recalling past information stored in the memory
external information search
the process of seeking information in the outside environment (marketer controlled)
Nonmarketing controlled information source
A product information source that is not associated with advertising or promotion (rotten tomatoes, blogs)
Marketing controlled information source
a product information source that originates with marketers promoting the product (radio, newspaper, television, etc)
evoked set
a group of brands, resulting from an information search, from which a buyer can choose
Brand Extention
A well known and respected brand name from one product category is extended into other product categories
Cognitive Dissonance
inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistency between behavior and values or opinions
Strategies for dealing with cognitive dissonance
-provide additional positive experiences/ information
-offer guarantees
-testimonials from satisfied customers
Consumer Buying Decisions and Consumer Involvement
Routine Behavior Response, Limited Decision Making, Extensive Decision Making
Factors Determining the level of consumer involvement
Previous Experience, Interest, Perceived risk of negative consequences, Situation, Social Visibility
Factors Influencing Consumer Buying Decisions
Cultural Factors, Social Factors, Individual Factors, Psychological Factors
Components of Cultural Factors
Values, Language, myths, customs rituals
Subculture
A homogeneous group of people who share elements of the overall culture as well as unique elements of their own group
Social Influences
Reference Groups, Opinion Leaders, Family Members
Social Class
A group of people in society who are considered nearly equal in status or community esteem, who regularly socialize among themselves both formally and informally
Individual Influences
Gender, Age, Personality
Psychological Influences
Perception, Motivation, Learning, Beliefs and Attitudes
Reference Group
a gruop in society that influences an individuals purchasing behavior
Primary membership gruop
a reference gruop with which people interact regularly in an informal, face to face manner (employees, family, friends)
Secondary Membership group
a reference group with which people associate less consistently and more formally (church, club, professional group)
aspirational reference group
a group that someone would like to join
non aspirational reference group
a group with which an individual does not want to associate
opinion leader
an individual who influences the opinions of other leaders
Socialization process
How cultural values and norms are passed down to children
Decision making roles in the purchase process
Initiators, influence-rs, decision maker, purchaser, consumer (need to cater to all these in order to be effective)
Personality
a way of organizing and grouping the consistencies of an individuals reactions to situations
self concept
how consumers perceive themselves in terms of attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and self evaluations
perception
the process by which people select, organize, and interpret stimuli into a meaningful and coherent picture
selective exposure
the process whereby a consumer notices certain stimuli and ignores others
selective distortion
a process whereby a consumer changes or distorts information that conflicts with his or her feelings or beliefs
selective retention
a process whereby a consumer remembers only that information that supports his or her personal beliefs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Physiological, Safety Needs, Social Needs, Esteem Needs, Self Actualization needs
Experiential learning
occurs when an experience changes your behavior
conceptual learning
not acquired through experience, more reasoning
stimulus generation
think of brands using their brand image to put towards other products (think Clorox) STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION IS OPPOSITE