The study of consumer __________ helps marketers understand why people choose one brand over another and how they make these choices.
Last autumn, Will was raking leaves. After making several large piles, he went into the garage and discovered that he had no more large garbage bags. He couldn’t finish the job without them. Will has just begun the
purchase decision process
Devin had just been laid off from her job and was watching TV at about 2:00 P.M. when she saw an advertisement for a local trade college. It sounded like just what she needed to get back on her feet, so she went right to the phone to contact the school. Devin’s information search was shortened by a perfectly timed advertisement, which is a __________.
For the purchase of a smartphone, Consumer Reports expects that many consumers use price, display, web browsing, and battery life as __________, since it tests products on these dimensions.
Satisfaction or dissatisfaction affects consumer communications; while the satisfied buyer typically tells about three other people about her experience, the dissatisfied buyer
is likely to complain about 9 people
Cognitive dissonance is most likely to occur in which stage of the purchase decision process?
A consumer will use one of three general problem-solving variations, extended, limited, or routine, based on level of involvement and
For which of the following items would extended problem solving mostly likely be used?
a silicon injection
The market leader for a(n) __________ product must make special efforts to avoid stock-out situations so that buyers don’t substitute a competing brand.
As a situational influence, antecedent states include
the mood of the shopper
Which of the following is a psychological influence on the consumer behavior decision process?
A television ad for Volkswagen features several nervous teens examining the damage immediately following a car accident, and the message, “Your parents can only kill you if you’re OK.” Marketers at Volkswagen are attempting to appeal to consumers’ __________ needs.
Selective __________ is defined as paying attention to messages that are consistent with one’s attitudes and beliefs and ignoring messages that are inconsistent.
Kia Motor’s 10-year, 100,000-mile warranty is most effective at
deceiving perceived risk
If a consumer is happy with the firm, but natural, hold she gets from her latest purchase of hair spray, this would be considered which variable of the behavioral learning process?
Using the same brand name for different products is an application of which concept from behavioral learning theory?
To dispel mothers’ concerns about ingredients in its mayonnaise, Hellmann’s successfully communicated the product’s high Omega 3 content, which is known to be essential to human health. This is an example of using which attitude change strategy?
changing beliefs about the extent to which a brand has certain attributes
The VALS system is a(n) __________ measure of consumers.
Which of the following statements about word of mouth is most accurate?
the power of word of mouth has amplified by the internet
The prevalence of working parents and single-parent households has resulted in
preteens and teenagers increasingly being the information gatherers, influencers, decision makers and purchasers of family product
Marketing research is the process of defining a marketing problem and opportunity, systematically collecting and analyzing information, and __________.
The first step in the five-step marketing research approach is to
define the problem
In marketing research, the research objectives are the __________ goals of the decision maker.
specific and measurable
In a marketing decision, __________ are likely to be restrictions on the time and money available to solve the problem.
Two special methods vital to marketing researchers are __________ and __________.
sampling, statistical inference
A company is interested in producing self-stick decorative posters. It selects a representative sample of middle school students who currently have one or more standard posters on their walls. After interviewing them and collecting other relevant data, the firm then makes generalizations about what all middle school students want in their posters. The method used is
When a marketing researcher uses a collection of reports, customer letters, financial statements, and surveys from different departments within her firm, she is using
internal secondary data
A restaurant is collecting comment cards from customers in order to develop ideas about how to improve their business. The restaurant is
collecting primary data
Which of the following is a form of secondary data?
company sale reports
Representatives from Kraft spent several months with consumers in their kitchens, attempting to understand what they wanted in ready-to-serve meals prior to the launch of Kraft Deli Creations. The observational approach Kraft used is called __________ research.
In eight small group sessions with customers, 3M heard them complain that standard steel wool pads scratched their expensive cookware. The findings from this research lead to the development of 3M’s internationally successful Scotch-Brite Never Scratch soap pads. The research method 3M used was
If you were asked in a telephone interview if you planned to vote in the fall elections, and were asked to answer either yes or no, this question would be considered
A question about an instructor’s comportment in the classroom, with a five-point scale ranging from “enthusiastic” on one end to “unengaging” on the other end would be what type of marketing research question?
semantic differential scale
An advantage of using a panel for marketing research is
researchers can take successive measurements of consumers to determine if they change purchase behavior over time
All of the following are independent variables a market researcher may use in a marketing experiment EXCEPT:
Through the use of __________, a catalog retailer might determine from its database that customers who purchased silver frames would also have a high probability of buying vintage hatpins. As a result, its sales representatives were instructed to offer a special price on hatpins when a customer places an order for a silver frame.
The last step in the marketing research approach is to
take marketing actions
In 2015, a marketing manager for New Balance’s Minimus shoe needs to forecast sales through 2017. She begins with the known totals for 2014 and adjusts for positive factors like acceptance of new high-tech designs and great publicity, and for negative factors like the slow economy and predicted moves by the competition. This type of forecast is referred to as
lost horse forecasting
__________ assumes that the underlying relationships in the past will continue into the future; the method is simple but not always correct.
Asking the firm’s salespeople to estimate sales during a coming period is referred to as
a salesforce survey forecast
Market segmentation involves aggregating prospective buyers into groups that have common needs and will
respond similarly to marketing action
A business firm uses market segmentation to respond more effectively to the wants of groups of potential buyers in order to
increase sales and profits
Dollar Shave Club asks men to “Shave Money, Shave Time” in its commercials; it offer high-quality blades available by mail for a few dollars a month. Dollar Shave Club’s advertising promotes the time- and money-saving aspects of its product as an example of
Which of the following is an example of a single product with multiple market segments?
residence inn only offers suites that are larger than traditional hotel rooms, appealing to both business travelers and families with children
Which of the following statements is most accurate about build-to-order (BTO) manufacturing?
manufacturing products only when a customer places an order
Walmart is opening 12 stores to test the concept of Walmart Express, stores that are one-tenth the size of its supercenters and sell groceries. One risk to this effort is __________.
There are five steps involved in segmenting and targeting a market. What should a marketer do once he or she has grouped both potential buyers and products to be sold?
develop market-product grid and estimate market sizes
Potential buyers within a market segment should be
similar in terms of advertising media used
Which of the following is a variable that could be used for demographic segmentation of consumer markets?
People who live active outdoor lives are part of the target market for REI, a retail outdoor outfitter. This suggests that REI would most likely segment the market based on which consumer segmentation basis?
Though the percentages are not always the same, a general rule in business says that the large majority of a firm’s revenues come from what percent of its customers?
Which two of the following demographic segmentation variables would firms use to segment organizational markets?
NAICS code and number of employees
Kitchen World has put its offerings in store locations based upon the cooking activity—the way consumers prepare and present various meals. Everything for baking is in one spot, while food preparation utensils are in another, and table settings are in yet another. This strategy uses
An important part of creating a market-product grid is to
estimate size of the markets
Which of the following is a criterion used to select a target market segment?
Running horizontally across a market-product grid, each row represents an opportunity for efficiency in terms of
a market segment
Positioning a product or brand effectively involves taking four steps, one of which includes
discovering where the company’s product or brand is on the relevant attributes in the minds of potential customers
Two major types of product positioning are
head to head, differentiation
When McDonald’s introduced its low-fat McLean Deluxe hamburger, it used __________ to avoid direct competition with Wendy’s and Burger King.
A means of displaying or graphing in two dimensions the location of products or brands in the minds of consumers to enable a manager to see how consumers perceive competing products or brands, as well as its own product or brand, is referred to as a __________.