Marketing 300 Chapter 5

Culture
The set of basic values, perceptions, wants, and behaviors learned by a member of society from family and other important institutions.
Subculture
A group of people (within a culture) with shared value systems based on common life experiences and situations.
Social class
Relatively permanent and ordered divisions in a society whose members share similar values, interests, and behaviors.
Group
Two or more people who interact to accomplish individual or mutual goals.
Opinion leader
A person within a reference group who, because of special skills, knowledge, personality, or other characteristics, exerts social influence on others.
Online social networks
Online social communities-blogs, social networking web sites, or even virtual worlds-where people socialize or exchange information and opinions.
Lifestyle
A person’s pattern of living as expressed in his or her activities, interests, and opinions.
Personality
The unique psychological characteristics that distinguish a person or group.
Motive (drive)
A need that is sufficiently pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction of the need.
Perception
The process by which people select, organize, and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
Learning
Changes in an individual’s behavior arising from experience.
Belief
A descriptive thought that a person holds about something.
Attitude
A person’s consistently favorable or unfavorable evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea.
Complex buying behavior
Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by high consumer involvement in a purchase and significant perceived differences among brands.
Dissonance-reducing buying behavior
Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by high involvement but few perceived differences among brands.
Habitual buying behavior
Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by low-consumer involvement and few significantly perceived brand differences.
Variety-seeking buying behavior
Consumer buying behavior in situations characterized by low consumer involvement but significant perceived brand differences.
Need recognition
The first stage of the buyer decision process, in which the consumer recognizes a problem or need.
Information search
The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer is aroused to search for more information, the consumer may simply have heightened attention or may go into an active information search.
Alternative evaluation
The stage of the buyer decision process in which the consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brands in the choice set.
Purchase decision
The buyer’s decision about which brand to purchase.
Postpurchase behavior
The stage of the buyer decision process in which consumers take further action after purchase based on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a purchase.
Cognitive dissonance
Buyer discomfort caused by postpurchase conflict.
New product
A good, service, or idea that is perceived by some potential customers as new.
Adoption process
The mental process through which an individual passes from first hearing about an innovation to final adoption.
Factors influencing consumer buyer behavior (4):
1. cultural: culture, subculture, social class
2. social: reference groups (word of mouth, buzz marketing, social networks), family *most important*, social roles/status
3. personal factors: age, occupation, economics, lifestyle
4. psychological: motivation, perception, learning, beliefs, attitudes.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: top to bottom
1. self-actualization(self-development, realization)
2. esteem (self-esteem, recognition, status)
3. social (belonging, love)
4. safety (security, protection)
5. physiological (hunger, thirst)
types of buying behaviors (4):
1. complex
2. variety-seeking
3. dissonance-reducing
4. habitual
steps in the buyer decision making process: (5)
1. need recognition
2. information search
3. evaluate alternatives
4. purchase decision
5. postpurchase behavior
steps in the Adoption Process (5):
1. awareness
2. interest
3. evaluation
4. trial
5. adoption