Market-Research: CH 6- "Quantitative Data Collection Methods"

Learning Objectives:
Lo 1: Evaluate each of the four basic survey modes for gathering data.
Lo 2: Describe different types of survey data collection methods.
Lo 3: Express major concerns in choosing a particular survey method.
Four Data Collection Modes:
1. Person-administered, no computer
2. Computer-assisted methods
3. Self administered; respondent completes it
4. Mixed-mode surveys, combine above methods
Person-administered, no computer is
Computer-assisted methods is
Self administered; respondent completes it is
Mixed-mode surveys, combine above methods
Person-Administered Surveys:
– Interviewer reads questions
– Face-to-face or by telephone, records answers
Person-Administered Surveys:
– Advantages of person-administered surveys:
– Feedback: can respond to issues
– Rapport: greater comfort with another human
– Quality control: get correct demographics
– Adaptability: can adapt, e.g. elderly
Person-Administered Surveys:
– Disadvantages of Person-Administered Surveys
– Human error: may change wording, sequence
– High cost: recruit, train, pay interviewer
– Interview evaluation: can create discomfort
Computer-Administered Surveys:
– Computer plays key role in interview
– May assist a human interviewer
– Prompts next question, branches where needed
– May interact directly with respondent
– Online surveys
Advantages of Computer-Administered Surveys:
– Speed: much faster than humans
– Can branch based on previous responses
– Error-free interviews: should be no errors
– Use of visuals: can show images, videos
– Real-time capture of data
– Data entered directly into database
– Little “interview evaluation”
– No human interaction, less anxiety
Disadvantages of Computer-Administered Surveys:
– Technical skills: need computer-savvy people
– Must ensure system operates properly
– Should be wary of viruses, bugs
– High setup costs: programming, debugging
– Can take days to get going
– Growing availability of low-cost services
– User-friendly development interfaces
Self-Administered Surveys:
– Respondent completes on his/her own
– Respondent reads, responds directly
– Choose pace, location, time
– No human, computer administration involved
Advantages of Self-Administered Surveys:
– Reduced cost: no interviewer, computer needed
– Respondent control:
– Respondent not feeling rushed
– Feel relaxed when responding
– No interview-evaluation apprehension
– Get more insightful information
– Better than face-to-face for that
Disadvantages of Self-Administered Surveys:
– Respondent control: may ignore survey
– May answer questions erroneously
– Late replies, refusals
– Lack of monitoring: no interaction
– Confused respondents left on their own
– May give incorrect, no answers
– High questionnaire requirements:
– All relies on respondent
Mixed-Mode Surveys:
– Use multiple data collection methods
– Advantage: use best of each technique
– Online for connected, phone for others
– Representative sample can be gained
– Disadvantages:
– Mode may affect response
– Added complexity for different modes
– Different instructions, data input
Data Collection Methods: Person-Administered Interviews:
– At least four variations, based on location
– In-Home interviews: completed in home
– Costly, so contact, setting must be essential
– Mall-Intercept interviews: stop and ask
– Can interact, but are samples representative?
– High refusals, less-than-ideal environment
Data Collection Methods: Person-Administered – – Interviews [cont’d]:
– In-Office interviews: good for B2B
– Similar to home, but access professionals
– Costly, hard to locate respondents
– Telephone interviews: no need to be there
– Cost of calls low, can get high quality sample
– Quick turnaround times; political polls
– Cannot show things, no visual cues
– Longer, open-ended interviews pose problems
– Technology – call blocking, telemarketing
Telephone Interview Techniques:
– Traditional method: fading away
– All mechanical – dialing, reading questions
– Great potential for errors, temptations to cheat
– Need verification, proof interviews completed
– Central Location: all calls from one place
– Cost savings, quality control, multiple surveys
– Better recruitment, training, supervision
Computer-Administered Interviews:
– Computer-assisted telephone interviews
– Interviewer reads from computer screen
– Automatic dialing, prompts help interviewer
– Helpful to skip to next appropriate question
– Few errors, easy, quick tabulations
– Can add questions if appropriate
– Save money, time, get quality control
Computer-Administered Interviews [cont’d]:
– Fully computerized interviews
– Computer dials, respondent pushes buttons
– Completely automated telephone survey (CATS)
– Good for customer satisfaction, service quality
– Respondent may complete at computer unit
– Touch screen for responses
– No people costs, but computer advantages
– Easy tabulation
Computer-Administered Interviews [cont’d]:
– Online questionnaire: becoming standard
– Fast, easy, inexpensive
– Can present images, all question types
– Respondent completes at convenient time
– Continuous input possible
– Speed, low cost key advantages
– Concerns about representativeness, validation
Self-Administered Surveys:
– Group self-administered surveys
– Group may view TV ad, respond
– Student class survey
– Drop-off surveys; leave it with them
– Approach respondent, explain, leave survey
– Submitted by respondent, sometimes online
– Can include hotel, grocery store surveys
Self-Administered Surveys [cont’d]:
– Mail surveys: sent, returned by mail
– Mailing lists readily available
– Can get specific groups of respondents
– Generally inexpensive, but…
– Problems with mail surveys
– Nonresponse; many never returned
– Self-selection bias; respondents may not be representative
Choice of the Survey Method:
– All methods have nonresponse issues
– Each has advantages, disadvantages
– Guiding principle should be quality of data
– Balance quality against cost, time and more
Survey Data Collection Time Horizon:
– May need data collection in short time frame
– If time is tight:
– Telephone surveys relatively fast
– If interaction with product essential, mall intercept indicated
– Online very fast
– Research panels growing in popularity
– Ensures high response rates
Survey Data Collection Budget:
– If budget is low, mail looks good
– Online surveys also appealing
– Client can select target, design questionnaire
– Need to be sure online is representative of target
– Telephone surveys would be next choice
Incidence Rate:
– Percentage of population meeting criteria
– Often target very select group
– May want older group
– May include medical conditions
– Online, telephone likely choices
Cultural/Infrastructure Considerations:
– International cultural issues arise
– Door-to-door may not work
– Population may lack telephone service
– Critical to understand culture
– Wise to consult with local research firms