Market Research Ch 1-6

Marketing Research
the process of designing, gathering, analyzing, and reporting information that may be used to solve a specific marketing problem.

how to use the best resources available to accomplish objectives

Basic Marketing Research principals
Marketing research is used to help design marketing strategy and planning
Make sure your research is timely and relevant
Carefully define your research objectives
Don’t conduct frivolous research
Marketing research applications – Why study marketing, and what uses can marketing research have?
Basic Research
Applied Research
Types of marketing research organizations
In house research
External research- agencies
How would I like you to approach this class, and why do I advocate that perspective?
Educated buyers and users of market research. Not to be professionals.
How did the research industry come about?
The first known application of marketing research to a business marketing/advertising problem was conducted by the ad agency N.W. Ayer & Son in 1879. They did research for its client in a manufacturer of agriculture.
The industry grew in 1930s after the industrial revolution
What are the types of research organization?
Internal-DIY (do it yourself)
External- Agency
Marketing research process
an interrelated sequence of steps that make up a marketing research project.
Marketing research process
1. Justify the need for marketing research
2. Define the research objective
3. Identify data needs
4. Identify data sources
5. Choose an appropriate research design and data collection method
6. Design the research instrument or form
7. Identify the sample
8. Collect data, including any relevant secondary data
9. Analyze and interpret the data
10. Present the research findings to decision makers
Marketing research types
Exploratory
Conclusive
-descriptive
-causal
Qualitative vs. quantitative
Quantitative is data and numbers.
Qualitative is everything else.
Primary
information collected specifically for the problem at hand
Secondary
information already collected
Exploratory Research
*want to be as comprehensive as possible*
collecting information in an unstructured and informal manner
Used to:
-answer vague questions
-gives direction
– better understanding of the situation
-non-quanititative
Descriptive Research
refers to a set of methods and procedures describing a population
-often seen in surveys
Experimental Research
Must have an Independent (manipulated) variable, and a Dependent (measured) variable
ex: Joe wants to increase beer sales during Vikings football games. To do this he tries increasing and decreasing his prices by 50 cents over several games to see what effect it has.
Conclusive Research
research done to answer yes or no questions
Used to:
-narrow choices
-more formal than exploratory research
-quantitative
Cross-Sectional Studies
*is apart of descriptive research*
One time studies involving data collection at a single period in time-a snapshot.
– think of the whole movie being great and the last scene being terrible. people judge the movie by the last scene, not the movie as a whole
Longitudinal Studies
*is apart of descriptive research*
repeated measures of studies that collect data over several periods in time. will provide richer information
-think of the whole movie over time, not just a specific scene
What is the process for defining the problem?
Must have either failure to meet objective or an opportunity. Managers must choose among alternatives. Managers must be knowledgeable about objectives and performance. Reliant on a control system.
Sample Plan
refers to the process used to select units from the population to be included in the sample
Sample Size
refers to determining how many elements of the population should be included in the sample
Key Informant Technique
technique used to ask the people who are most related to the topic of understanding.
i.e.-movies
movie directors
actors
critics
Focus Group Interviews
group discussion facilitated by a discussion leader, great because there is lots of info and feedback

bad bc there can be a dominating person

Secondary Data
Insights here might eliminate the need for conclusive research. Must be careful with this technique
Case Study Method
in-depth examination of a unit of interest
observation
human or mechanical observation of what people actually do
Marketing information systems
Internal secondary data(collected within firms), internal databases(info collected during normal business transactions), data mining(software that helps make sense of data)
Secondary Data
Ad: obtained quickly, inexpensive, almost always readily available, may be all that is needed
Dis: incompatible units, mismatch of unites of measurements, differing definitions used to classify the data, timeliness, lack of information to asses
Qualitative research
The collection, analysis, and interpretation of data that cannot meaningfully quantified or summarized in the form numbers
-used mainly for hypothesis’ to be tested
-problem or issue needs to be explored
Quantitative research
the collection, analysis, and interpretation data involving larger, more representative respondent samples and numerical calculation of results
-used to test hypothesis
Narrative
Exploring the life of an individual, usually told as a story.
-easier to understand
-never in business contexts
Phenomenology
Understanding the essence of the lived experiences
-studying several individuals that have shared the experience
Grounded Theory
developing a theory from data from the field
Ethnography
describing and interpreting a culture-sharing group
-different from phenomenology bc has values, norms, behaviors, beliefs, and language
Instrumental
*part of case study*
approach to a single issue- blown up
Multiple
*part of case study*
one issue with multiple cases. person vs person vs person
Intrinsic
*part of case study*
unique situations
i.e.- kids grow up with out human contact
Observational techniques
Covert- hiding from the customer
Overt- the customer can see us
structured questions
questions with provided answers by the survey makers
unstructured questions
allows person surveying to open up and express their views
Structured observation
Studying the *specific* actions of the customer, which things were bought, etc that were pre planned to look for
Nonstructured observation
Studying the actions of the customer as a whole, without any specifications
Direct question format
straight pointed question, i.e. – are you a good parent?
indirect question format
question surrounding the point, i.e.- how would you describe the parenting of your friends, neighbors, and relatives?
Natural observation technique
follow a customer out in the field, at the grocery store
Contrived Observation technique
following a customer in a controlled grocery store, for instance one that you made.
In house research
Centralized structure – one big department
Decentralized – all have their own
Mixed – mixture of the two
Basic Research
(usually academics) – conducted to generate knowledge
Applied Research
(usually industry) – research conducted to solve a specific problem
Research Objectives
Completely dependent on the problem. Specific, and tell the researcher exactly what information must be collected to solve the problem by facilitating selection of a decision alternative.
Sources of Problems
Failure to Meet an Objective-Gap between what is supposed to happen and what did happen.
Opportunity-Gap between what did happen and what could have happened.
Hypotheses
Statements that are taken for true for the purposes of argument or investigation.
Independent Variable
Variables over which the researcher has control and wishes to manipulate. (Typically the 4Ps)
Dependent Variable
Variables over which we have little or no direct control but a strong interest in changing. (ex. sales, market share, customer satisfaction, turnover, ROI etc.)
Casuality
Understanding a phenomenon in terms of conditional statements of the form “If x, then y.”
Step 1
Establish the need for marketing research
**Sometimes marketing research isn’t needed-The information is already available, the timing is wrong to conduct marketing research, funds are not available for marketing research.
Step 2
Define the Problem-Stating the decision alternatives
*Most important step in the research process*
Step 3
Establish Research Objectives
Step 4
Determine Research Design
Step 5
Identify information Types and Sources
Step 6
Determine Methods of Accessing Data
Step 7
Design Data Collection Forms
Step 8
Determine Sample Plan and Size
Step 9
Collect Data
Step 10
Analyze Data
Step 11
Prepare and Present The Final Research Report