Management Test 3 USF

motivation
forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts
goal-setting theory
a motivation theory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end
stretch goals
targets that are particularly demanding, sometimes even thought to be impossible
law of effect
a law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911 stating that behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated
reinforcers
positive consequences that motive behavior
organizational behavior modification (OB MOD)
the application of reinforcement theory in organization settings
positive reinforcement
applying a consequence that increases the likelihood of a person repeating the behavior that led to it
negative reinforcement
removing or with holding an undesirable consequence
punishment
administering an aversive consequence
extinction
withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence
expectancy theory
a theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome
expectancy
employees’ perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals
outcome
a consequence a person receives for his or her performance
instrumentality
the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome
valence
the value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it
Maslow’s need hierarchy
a human needs theory postulating that people are motivated to satisfy unmet needs in a specific order
Alderfer’s ERG theory
a human needs theory postulating that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously
extrinsic rewards
rewards given to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person
intrinsic reward
reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself
job rotation
changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom
job enlargement
giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom
job enrichment
changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying
two-factor theory
Herzberg’s theory describing two factors affecting people’s work motivation and satisfaction
hygiene factors
characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision, that can make people dissatisfied
motivators
factors that make a job more motivating, such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement
growth need strength
the degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development
empowerment
the process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization
equity theory
a theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs
procedural justice
using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible
quality of work life (QWL) programs
programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well-being
psychological contract
a set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them
group
a collection of people who interact to undertake a task but do not necessarily perform as a unit or achieve significant performance improvements
team
a small number or people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
work teams
teams that make or do things like manufacture, assemble, sell, or provide service
project and development teams
teams that work on long-term projects but disband once the work is completed
parallel teams
teams that operate separately from the regular work structure, and exist temporarily
management teams
teams that coordinate and give direction to the subunits under their jurisdiction and integrate work among subunits
transnational teams
work groups composed of multinational members whose activities span multiple countries
virtual teams
teams that are physically dispersed and communicate electronically more than face-to-face
traditional work groups
groups that have no managerial responsibilities
quality circles
voluntary groups of people drawn from various production teams who make suggestions about quality
semiautonomous work groups
groups that make decisions about managing and carrying out major production activities but get outside support for quality control and maintenance
autonomous work groups
groups that control decisions about and execution of a complete range of tasks
self-designing teams
teams with the responsibilities of autonomous work groups, plus control over hiring, firing, and deciding what task members perform
self-managed teams
autonomous work groups in which workers are trained to do all or most of the jobs in a unit, have no immediate supervisor, and make decisions previously made by first-line supervisors
social loafing
working less hard and being less productive when in a group
social facilitation effect
working harder when in a group than when working alone
norms
shared beliefs about how people should think and behave
roles
different sets of expectations for how different individuals should behave
task specialist
an individual who has more advanced job-related skills and abilities than other group members possess
team maintenance specialist
individual who develops and maintains team harmony
cohesiveness
the degree to which a group is attractive to its members, members are motivated to remain in the group, and members influence one another
gatekeeper
a team member who keeps abreast of current developments and provides the team with relevant information
informing
a team strategy that entails making decisions with the team and then informing outsiders of its intentions
parading
a team strategy that entails simultaneously emphasizing internal team building and achieving external visibility
probing
a team strategy that requires team members to interact frequently with outsiders, diagnose their needs, and experiment with solutions
conflict
a process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party
avoidance
a reaction to conflict that involves ignoring the problem by doing nothing at all, or deemphasizing the disagreement
accommodation
a style of dealing with conflict involving cooperation on behalf of the other party but not being assertive about one’s own interests
compromise
a style of dealing with conflict involving moderate attention to both parties’ concerns
competing
a style of dealing with conflict involving strong focus on one’s own goals and little or no concern for the other person’s goals
collaboration
a style of dealing with conflict emphasizing both cooperation and assertiveness to maximize both parties’ satisfaction
superordinate goals
higher-level goals taking priority over group goals
mediator
a third party who intervenes to help others manage their conflict
communication
the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols
one-way communication
a process in which information flows in only one direction – from the sender to the receiver, with no feedback loop
two-way communication
a process in which information flows in two directions – the receiver provides feedback, and the sender is receptive to the feedback
perception
the process or receiving and interpreting information
filtering
the process of withholding, ignoring, or distorting information
virtual office
a mobile office in which people can work anywhere as long as they have the tools to communicate with customers and colleagues
media richness
the degree to which a communication channel conveys information
reflection
process by which a person states what he or she believes the other person is saying
downward communication
information that flows from higher to lower levels in the organization’s heirarchy
coaching
dialogue with a goal of helping another be more effective and achieve his or her full potential on the job
open-book management
practice of sharing with employees at all levels of the organization vital information previously meant for management’s eyes only
upward communication
information that flows from lower to higher levels in the organization’s hierarchy
horizontal communication
information shared among people on the same hierarchical level
grapevine
informal communication network
boundaryless organization
organization in which there are no barriers to information flow
control
any process that directs the activities of individuals toward the achievement of organizational goals
bureaucratic control
the use of rules, regulations, and authority to guide performance
market control
control based on the use of pricing mechanisms and economic information to regulate activities within organizations
clan control
control based on the norms, values, shared goals, and trust among group members
standard
expected performance for a given goal: a target that establishes a desired performance level, motivates performance, and serves as a benchmark against which actual performance is assessed
principle of exception
a managerial principle stating that control is enhanced by concentrating on the exceptions to or significant deviations form the expected result or standard
feedforward control
the control process used before operations begin, including, policies, procedures, and rules designated to ensure that planned activities are carried out properly
concurrent control
the control process used while plans are being carried out, including directing, monitoring, and fine-tuning activities as they are performed
feedback control
control that focuses on the use of information about previous results to correct deviations from the acceptable standard
management audit
an evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of various systems within an organization
external audit
an evaluation conducted by one organization, such as a CPA firm, on another
internal audit
a periodic assessment of a company’s own planning, organizing, leading and controlling processes
budgeting
the process of investigating what is being done and comparing the results with the corresponding budget data to verify accomplishments or remedy differences; also called “budgetary controlling”
accounting audits
procedures used to verify accounting reports and statements
activity-based costing (ABC)
a method of cost accounting designed to identify streams of activity and then to allocate coasts across particular business processes according to the amount of time employees devote to particular activities
balance sheet
a report that shows the financial picture of a company at a given time and itemizes assets, liabilities, and stockholders’ equity
assets
the values of the various items the corporation owns
liabilities
the amounts a corporation owes to various creditors
stockholders’ equity
the amount accruing to the corporation’s owners
profit and loss statement
an itemized financial statement of the income and expenses of a company’s operations
current ratio
a liquidity ratio that indicates the extent to which a short-term asset can decline and still be adequate to pay short-term liabilities
debt-equity ratio
a leverage ratio that indicates the company’s ability to meet its long-term financial obligations
return on investment (ROI)
a ratio of profit to capital used, or a rate of return from capital
management myopia
focusing on short-term earnings and profits at the expense of longer-term strategic obligations
balanced scorecard
control system combining four sets of performance measures: financial, customer, business process, and learning and growth
transfer price
price charged by one unit for a good or service provided to another unit within the organization
technology audit
process of clarifying the key technologies on which an organization depends
disruptive innovation
a process by which a product, service, or business model takes root initially in simple applications at the bottom of a market and then moves “up market,” eventually displacing established competitors
make-or-buy decision
the question an organization asks itself about whether to acquire new technology from an outside source or develop it itself
development project
a focused organizational effort to create a new product or process via technological advances
organization development (OD)
the systemwide application of behavioral science knowledge to develop, improve, and reinforce the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organizational effectiveness
unfreezing
realizing that current practices are inappropriate and that new behavior is necessary
performance GAP
the difference between actual performance and desired performance
moving
instituting change
force-field analysis
an approach to implementing Lewin’s unfreezing/moving/refreezing model by involving identifying the forces that prevent people from changing and those that will drive people toward change
refreezing
strengthening the new behaviors that support the change
adapters
companies that take the current industry structure and its evolution as givens, and choose where to compete
shapers
companies that try to change the structure of their industries, creating a future competitive landscape of their own design
Chapter 11 of Karlins: Perfectionism
What are some key topic of this chapter?
– He knew a professor who was a perfectionist (She spent 10% of the time creating the work, and spent 90% of the time fine-tuning it)

-There are only a few true reasons to be a perfectionist. (Defusing a bomb in NY city, or petty instances)

-Grades: Is is really necessary to spent so much time studying to get all A’s and have no free time when you can get A’s and B’s and enjoy free time and extracurriculars and still have the same potential as those with straight A’s?

The cost of perfectionism usually isn’t worth all the time and hassle

Chapter 12 of Karlins: Healthy Lifestyle
What are some key topic of this chapter?
– Wendy Johnson (She was moving up in her career ladder quickly, but she died at age 45 because she had poor health)

– Stress: Many dangers of stress (Heart attack and other health issues, loss of friends from over-acting, etc) & there is not room for excessive stress in your life

– Relaxation Response (Basically meditating): 1. Find a calm environment, 2. find a mental device to repeat (Ommm) 3. Keep a passive attitude 4. Stay in a comfortable position.

– Type A or B personality – What am I and how does one make the best of their personality

-Practice personal ecology (Make a healthier lifestyle, be happier, have a more productive lifestyle)

Chapter 13 of Karlins: Battles
What are some key topic of this chapter?
– Choose battles that are worth the fight

-Princeton Parking situation

-Dropping a class situation

-Four rules:
— Don’t forget battles you have little change of winning
— Don’t engage in battles not worth the fight
— Don’t win battles that will cost you the war
— Don’t rule out retreat as an eventual path

Chapter 14 of Karlins: Retirement
What are some key topic of this chapter?
-Retirement – Make sure you have a game plan (financial, happiness, keeping busy, what is your goal?)

– Pine box retirement – Not retiring. Working in some complicity until you die

– Once you retire boredom and self-worth are big factors of retirement that you want to have under control

-Keep in contact with friends to be happy and to keep them happy. You were once so close, why do you have to slip away? (Don’t use the excuse … “I’m to busy”)

Chapter 15 of Karlins: Recap
What are some key topic of this chapter?
This chapter basically just recapped the book.

It told a story about a guy climbing the Zenfu mountains and the “old Master” gave insight on how this guy can find enlightenment. Basically the old master told him to read “Life Management 101.” Everything is in this book. Re analyze your life while you have time and you are young.It will be worth it.