Management Test 1

____ is defined as getting work done through others.
Management
Fruitlicious is a fruit juice manufacturing company. The company ensures that all the raw materials are used well and minimal waste is produced. The juice extraction and packaging units are designed in such way that quality is maintained with minimal costs. It can be said that Fruitlicious demonstrates
Efficiency
Managers must strive for _____, which is accomplishing tasks that help fulfillorganizational objectives such as customer service and satisfaction.
Effectiveness
_____ involves determining organizational goals and the means for achieving them.
Planning
The function of _____ typically involves deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom in the company.
Organizing
_____ refers to monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed.
Controlling
As the human resources manager at Hayden Engineering and Manufacturing Corp, Kim had to find effective ways to reward high performing employees and boost their morale during an economic downturn. Which management function did Kim have to engage in?
Leading
_____ are executives responsible for the overall direction of the organization.
Top Managers
It is typically the responsibility of _____ to develop employees’ commitment to and ownership of the company’s performance.
Top Managers
Middle managers typically:
Plan and allocate resources to meet objectives
First-line managers will most likely have to:
Encourage, monitor, and reward employees’ performance
A ____ for a fast-food restaurant would be responsible for giving instructionsto the staff and for setting up weekly work schedules.
First-line manager
According to Mintzberg, which of the following is one of the three major rolesmanagers fulfill while performing their jobs?
Interpersonal roles
Which of the following is an example of an interpersonal role?
Figure head
The informational role managers’ play when they share information they have collected with their subordinates and others in the company is called the ____ role.
Disseminator
In the _____ managerial role, managers discuss and handle schedules, projects, goals, outcomes, resources, and employee raises.
Negotiator
In the context of decisional roles, managers who assume the _____ role respond to pressures and problems so severe that they demand immediate attention and action.
Disturbance handler
_____ skills can be summarized as the ability to work well with others.
Human
An accountant with ____ has the ability to create a budget, compare the budget to the actual income statement, and determine unnecessary expenses.
Technical skill
Which type of skills are the most important to the success of lower-level managers?
Technical skills
What type of skills are equally important at all levels of management?
Human
Which skill is needed to get employees to participate in competitive situations?
Motivation to manage
Which of the following is a characteristic of derailers?
They are abrasive and intimidating
According to Linda Hill’s study, which of the following is typically an expectation that managers have during the initial stages of management?
They believe they need to be the boss
_____ is the ultimate form of commitment companies can make to their workers.
Employment security
According to ____, the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers are facing at a particular time and place.
The contingency approach
Nearly all organizations that interact with their environments and depend on them for survival are viewed as ____.
Open systems
Which of the following statements about information management is true?
Two types of information technology are the cash register and the printing press.
A systems view of management allows managers to ____.
Deal with the complex environment in which their companies operate
Which of the following management theorists believed that workers ultimately grant managers their authority?
Chester Barnard
_____ involves managing the daily production of goods and services.
Operations Management
Which of the following management theories uses a quantitative approach tofind ways to increase productivity, improve quality, and manage or reduce costly inventories?
Operations Management
Which of the following was demonstrated by the Hawthorne Studies?
Workers were not just extension of machines.
Which of the following management theorists provided managers with a better understanding of the effect group social interactions and employee satisfaction have on individual and group performance?
Elton Mayo
With integrative conflict resolution, _____.
Both parties work together to create an alternative solution that includes shared preferences and integrates interests.
According to Henri Fayol’s fourteen principles of management, _____ means that each employee should report to and receive orders from just one boss.
Unity of command
According to Henri Fayol’s fourteen principles of management, _____ requires managers to develop a strong sense of morale and unity among workers that encourages coordination of efforts.
Esprit de corps
Identify the three ways in which Mary Parker Follett believed managers typically deal with conflict.
Domination, compromise, and integration
According to Henri Fayol, _____ is monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed.
Controlling
_____ focuses on the psychological and social aspects of work.
Human relations management
According to human relations management _____.
Success depends on treating workers well
Which of the following management theorists helped develop human relations management?
Mary Parker Follett
According to Henri Fayol, _____ is deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and
tasks, and who will work for whom.
Organizing
According to bureaucratic management, employees should be hired on the basis of _____.
Educational background of an applicant
According to bureaucratic management, _____ should supervise the organization.
Managers
According to bureaucratic management, which of the following is a criterion on which employees should be promoted?
Experience and achievements
Which of the following does a Gantt chart visually indicate?
The time in which each task should be completed for a project
One of the objectives of the motion study conducted by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth was to:
Improve productivity of workers
Prior to the introduction of _____, five workers each given an identical task could use five different methods to perform the task with some methods being significantly more efficient than others.
Scientific management
Which of the following is the goal of scientific management?
To find the one best way to perform each task.
_____ refer to discernible symbols of an organization’s culture, such as the office design and layout, company dress code, and company benefits andperks, like stock options, personal parking spaces, or the private company dining room.
Visible artifacts
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of successful organizational cultures?
Immutability
_____ is defined as a firm’s purpose or reason for existing.
Company mission
____ is a primary source of organizational culture.
Company’s founder
_____ is defined as searching the industry for important events or issues that might affect an organization.
Environmental scanning
The term ____ refers to the events and trends inside an organization that affect management, employees, and the organizational culture.
Internal environment
____ is the set of key values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by members ofan organization.
Organizational culture
_____ refers to the protocols and guidelines that govern the business practices and procedures of specific businesses, and professions.
Industry regulation
_____ are groups of concerned citizens who band together to try to influence the business practices of specific industries, businesses, and professions.
Advocacy groups
A high degree of buyer or seller dependence can lead to _____.
Opportunistic behavior
Competitive analysis refers to:
Identifying companies that sell similar products.
Which of the following helps managers accurately analyze competition?
Refraining from underestimating the potential of competitors.
____ is used to refer to a company’s practice of identifying and addressing customer trends and problems after they occur.
Reactive customer monitoring
_____refers to identifying and addressing customer needs, trends, and issues before they occur.
Reactive customer monitoring
A court ruling regarding the unfair firing of employees is a development in the _____ component of the general environment.
Political/legal
Many people in Rhenasia are cutting down on their spending. This is because of a lack of well-paying jobs in the country. Many businesses in the country are getting affected as the buying power of customers has drastically reduced. The environmental characteristic that is affecting businesses in Rhenasia is _____.
The economy
____ refers to identifying and addressing customer needs, trends, and issues before they occur.
Proactive monitoring
Business confidence indices:
Business confidence indices show how confident actual managers are about future business growth.
_____ refers to the knowledge, tools, and methods used to transform inputs (raw materials, information, and so on) into outputs (products and services).
Technology
Environmental uncertainty is most likely to be lowest when:
Environmental resource scarcity is low
Which of the following is a part of the general environment of an organization?
Political trends
Which of the following is true about a company’s specific environment?
It is unique to a particular firm’s industry.
Which of the following statements is true about environmental uncertainty?
It is most likely to be hight when environmental change is extensive.
_____ is the rate at which a company’s general and specific environments alter.
Environmental change
According to the ____, companies go through long, simple periods of environmental stability, followed by short, complex periods of dynamic, fundamental environmental change, finishing with a return to environmental stability.
Punctuated equilibrium theory
Which of the following is a part of the general environment of an organization?
Technology
A company implementing a(n) ____ strategy would demonstrate the greatest willingness on the part of the company to meet or exceed society’s expectations
Proactive
A company using a ____ social responsiveness strategy will do less than society expects.
Reactive strategy
A company using a ____ strategy would admit responsibility for a problem but would do the least required to meet social expectations.
Defensive strategy
____ pertain to the social roles that businesses play in society beyond their economic, legal, and ethical responsibilities.
Discretionary responsibilities
____ responsibility means making a profit by producing a product valued by society.
Economic
Secondary stakeholders are important to a company because ____.
They can affect public perceptions and opinions.
Under the stakeholder model, ____ would be an example of a stakeholder group that most strongly affects public perceptions and opinions about the company’s socially responsible behavior.
The media
Groups such as shareholders, employees, customers, suppliers, governments, and local communities are examples of ____ stakeholders.
Primary
A primary stakeholder of an organization would be ____.
Customers
The ____ model holds that the only social responsibility that businesses have is to maximize profit.
Shareholder
In the context of corporate social responsibility, which of the following statements would Milton Friedman agree to?
Organizations can act effectively as moral agents for all company shareholders.
Various persons or groups with a legitimate interest in a company’s actions are called ____.
Stakeholders
The two general category of stakeholders are ____ stakeholders.
Primary and secondary
Which of the following statements best defines social responsibility?
It is a business’ obligation to pursue policies, make decisions, and take actions that benefit society.
Which of the following is an important step in establishing an ethical climate in an organization?
The top managers behaving ethically
The last step in the basic model of ethical decision making is to ____.
Act on the situation
All of the following are important factors in the creation of an ethical business climate EXCEPT ____.
Official approval of a company’s ethics code by government regulators.
According to Kohlberg’s model of moral development, people at the ____ make decisions that conform to societal expectations.
Conventional level
The three stages of moral development identified by Kohlberg are ____.
The pre conventional level, the conventional level, and the post conventional level.
People at the ____ of moral development use internalized ethical principles to solve ethical dilemmas.
Post conventional level
According to Kohlberg’s model of moral development, people at the ____ make decisions that are based on selfish reasons.
Pre conventional level
Ethical intensity depends on all of the following EXCEPT ____.
Individual commitment
Which of the following terms describes the degree of concern people have about an ethical issue?
Ethical intensity
Which of the following statements about ethics is true?
When people believe their work environment is ethical, they are six times more likely to stay with that company.
Which of the following is true about planning?
It helps managers create task strategies.
Which of the following is an advantage of planning?
It encourages people to work harder for extended periods.
According to S.M.A.R.T. guidelines, goals should be ____.
Measurable
The most popular approach to increasing goal commitment is ____.
Encouraging workers’ participation in goal setting.
The last step in effective planning is to ____.
Maintain flexibility in planning
Which of the following is an accepted method for tracking progress toward goal achievement?
Gathering and providing performance feedback
____ planning allows companies to maintain flexibility by making small simultaneous investments in many alternative plans.
Options-based
Top management is responsible for developing ____.
Strategic plans
A ____ is a brief, two sentence statement of a company’s purpose for existing.
Organizational mission
____ plans specify how a company will use resources, budgets, and people to accomplish specific goals within its mission.
Tactical
Who among the following is responsible for the creation of tactical plans?
Middle managers
Management by objectives (MBO) is a management technique often used to develop and carry out.
Tactical plans
Which of the following is the first step in management by objectives?
Discussing possible goals
Who among the following is responsible for developing operational plans?
Lower-level managers
The ____ is a type of operational plan that saves managers time because it is created once and then used repeatedly to handle frequently.
Standing plan
____ are types of standing plans.
Policies and procedures
A laptop manufacturer has created a set of methods to deal with specific technical issues raised by customers. These methods are ____.
Standing plans
Which of the following is the most specific type of standing plan?
Rules and regulations
Budgets are a type of ____ plans.
Operational
____ is the process of choosing a solution from available alternatives.
Decision making
____ is a systematic process of defining problems, evaluating alternatives, and choosing optimal solutions.
Rational decision making
A ____ exists when there is a gap between a desired state (what managers want) and an existing state (the situation that the managers are facing)
Problem
____ occurs when managers choose an alternative that is good enough, rather than the best possible alternatives.
Satisficing
Groupthink occurs in ____.
Highly cohesive groups where there is a great deal of pressure to agree with each other.
____ is the emotional reaction that can occur when disagreements become personal rather than professional.
A-type conflict
______ are the assets, capabilities, processes, information, and knowledge that an organization uses to improve its effectiveness and efficiency, to create and sustain competitive advantage, and to fulfill a need or solve a problem.
Resources
Organizations can achieve a _____ by using their resources to provide greater value for customers than competitors can
Competitive advantage
A _____ resource is a resource that is not controlled or possessed by many competing firms.
Rare
The strategy-making process begins with:
The assessment of the need for strategic change
_____ is a discrepancy between a company’s intended strategy and the strategic actions managers take when actually implementing that strategy.
Strategic dissonance
A _____ is an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses in an organization’s internal environment and the opportunities and threats in its external environment.
Situational analysis
Which of the following is an example of core capabilities of an organization?
The organization’s skill in maintaining large inventories effectively.
_____ are the central companies in a strategic group.
Core firms
In the context of the strategic reference point theory, the _____ strategy aims to protect an existing competitive advantage.
Risk-avoiding
Which of the following is an example of a common approach to corporate-level strategy?
Grand strategies
_____ is a strategy for reducing risk by buying a variety of items so that the failure of one stock or one business does not doom the entire portfolio
Diversification
_____ is defined as the purchase of a company by another company.
Acquisition
The _____ is a portfolio strategy that managers use to categorize their corporation’s businesses by growth rate and relative market share. This strategy helps them to decide how to invest corporate funds.
The BCG matrix
The research on diversification in portfolio management indicates that the best approach is probably _____.
Related diversification
The purpose of a _____ strategy is to increase profits, revenues, market share, or the number of places (stores, offices, locations) in which the company does business.
Growth
Companies often choose a _____ strategy when their external environment doesn’t change much or after they have struggled with periods of explosive growth.
Stability
_____ consists of the strategic actions that a company takes to return to a growth strategy.
Recovery
A(n) _____ strategy is a corporate strategy that addresses the question “How should we compete in this line of business?”
Industry level
Which of the following is NOT one of the five industry forces that determine an industry’s overall attractiveness and potential for long-term profitability?
Organizational synergy
_____ is the measure of the intensity of competitive behavior between companies in an industry.
Character of the rivalry
_____ strategies typically work in market niches that competitors have overlooked or have difficulty serving
Focus
An industry-level strategy that is best suited to changes in the organization’s external environment is a(n)_____ strategy.
Adaptive
A company that is seeking to grow by taking risks and looking for innovations is best characterized as a(n) _____.
Prospector
_____ is the rivalry between two companies that offer similar products and services, acknowledge each other as rivals, and act and react to each other’s strategic actions.
Direct competition
Resource similarity and _____ are factors that determine the extent to which firms will be in direct competition with each other.
Market commonality
During an ethical decision-making process, which of these questions must be asked in order to identify a problem?
“What are the the factors that make this an ethical problem?”