Management Styles AOS2 Unit 3 (part two)

management styles
autocratic, persuasive, consultative, participative, laissez-faire
COMDAC
CONTROL: centralised with manager or decentralised with employees
ORIENTATION: managers focus on tasks or on employees
MOTIVATION: employee motivation is high or low
DECISION MAKING: do managers or employees make decisions
ATTITUDE: is the manager concerned about what employees think?
COMMUNICATION: one way or two way?
autocratic features
“tells.” management make all decisions and informs employees. staff participations is limited to implementing a decision.
autocratic (COMDAC)
C: centralised with the manager
O: task focused
M: low motivations as employees are not encouraged to contribute
D: managers
A: not concerned about what employees think
C: one-way, top → down
autocratic advantages (5)
∙ clear idea of who is in control/has authority
∙ employees know what there role is
∙ know exactly who makes the decisions
∙ efficient decisions making progress time isn’t wasted, fast decisions
∙ could be most suited in unfavourable conditions such as sacking
autocratic disadvantages (3)
∙ fails to use the expertise and skills of employees
∙ employee motivation low as employees are not encouraged to contribute (decreased job satisfaction?)
∙ staff manager relationships wouldn’t be as strong
persuasive features
“sells.” managers make decisions and persuade employees that it is a good decision. staff participation is limited. task centred
persuasive (COMDAC)
C: centralised with the manager
O: task focused
M: low motivation as employees are not encouraged to contribute (slightly higher than an autocratic style of management)
D: managers
A: not concerned about what employees think
C: one-way, top → down
persuasive advantages (9)
∙ clear idea of who is in control
∙ clear definite instructions
∙ employees understand/support decisions
∙ improved staff relations
∙ consistent and predictable behaviour
∙ know exactly who makes decisions
∙ efficient decision making process time is not wasted
∙ employees remain informed by management communicating their decisions
∙ could be most suited in unfavourable conditions such as sacking
persuasive disadvantages (4)
∙ poor rapport between employee/employer
∙ fails to use expertise and skills of employees
∙ employees motivation and skills are low as employees are not encouraged to contribute
∙ may not have staff support
consultative features
“consults”/asks. manager discusses decisions with staff before they are made for feedback. staff have input in the decision but ultimate decision lies with manager.
consultative (COMDAC)
C: centralised with the manager
O: employees and task focused; joint
M: moderate (limited) motivation due to staff orientation staff feel more valued
D: managers
A: are concerned about what employees think
C: two-way
consultative advantages (6)
∙ clear idea of who is in charge/ who makes decisions → less resistance form staff
∙ expertise and skills of employees are utilized
∙ employees are considered in decisions
∙ encourages a more positive corporate culture
∙ employees have a degree of ownership in the decision making process
∙ better quality decisions
consultative disadvantages (4)
∙ assume that employees want to become involved in the process
∙ possibility of conflict between employees and management
∙ more time is needed for consultation between the two groups to occur
∙ employee motivation and skills are considered limited
participative features
“joins.” decision making is open for discussion , staff and management have joint responsibility for decision. high level of staff participation in progress
participative (COMDAC)
C: centralised with manager and decentralised with employees
O: employees focused
M: high motivation
D: joint
A: are concerned about what employees think
C: two-way
participative advantages (9)
∙ decisions are more likely to be supported
∙ employee expertise and skills are likely to be utilized
∙ management encourage employees to discuss their ideas
∙ encourages a more positive corporate culture and improved motivation as employees are encouraged to develop skills and feel valued
∙ employees have a degree of ownership in the decision making process
∙ high employee involvement
∙ good employee/employer relations
∙ highly motivated employees
∙ team building and accountability is evident
participative disadvantages (7)
∙ can be unclear who has authority
∙ weakens management authority in relation to employees
∙ there can be conflict surrounding potential decisions
∙ time consuming decisions
∙ inconsistency and unpredictability can occur
∙ can lose overall business objectives
∙ employees might not know what is best
laissez-faire features
“extreme” participative style of management. management gives all issues to staff for resolution. limited management guidance and participation, total employee control.
laissez-faire (COMDAC)
C: decentralised with employees
O: employees focused
M: high motivation
D: employees
A: are concerned about what employees think
C: two-way
laissez-faire advantages (3)
∙ ownership of decisions by employees is high
∙ creativity is encouraged as is skill development
∙ employees have the power to start and develop projects
laissez-faire disadvantages (4)
∙ loss of control by management
∙ little or no management direction
∙ does not promote strategic planning or objectives
∙ can be inefficeint
situational approach
in some situations it may be appropriate for a manager to use a combination of management styles depending on the issue. different styles are used depending on the issue. different styles are used in different situations to achieve different objectives.
choosing the best management style
each situation involves the following elements:
∙ the manager with a personality with a set of values and skills
∙ the subordinates with their personality with a set of values and skills
∙ the task to be completed
∙ the environment constraints on the organisation’s activities such as pressure of time and limits on available resources…
key management skills (7)
∙ communication
∙ negotiation
∙ time-management
∙ delegations
∙ problem solving and decision making
∙ stress management
∙ emotional intelligence (EQ)
communication
effective communications means getting the intended message across to the receiver. there are two important aspects;
1. transmission of information
2. maintenance of good personal relationships
as an indirect result of communications, values of employees, expectations of employees.
forms of communications include; one-to-one personal communication, written communication, committees, conferences, networks.
noise in communication
noise blocks/distorts the message due to factors such as: physical distractions, ineffective use of technologies, words used, cultural differences…
negotiation
is a combinations of discussion and bargaining among negotiating parties aims to produce an outcome to satisfy all involved, a mutually agreeable outcome. key to success, don’t take a fixed position too early. five stage process in negotiation:
1. preparations
2. opening
3. bargaining
4. closing (agreement)
5. implementation
time-management
unless time is managed, nothing else can be managed. a systematic approach involves:
∙ setting out tasks to be done/goals to be achieved
∙ delegating tasks
∙ establishing priorities among remaining tasks
∙ building realistic deadlines and controls
∙ periodically reviewing the plan in operation
factors that negatively impact time management
∙ a culture in which crisis tends to upset plans
∙ poor communication
∙ delayed, incomplete or inaccurate information
∙ unnecessarily slow decision making
∙ unnecessary or poor planned meetings
∙ lack of staff familiarity with organisation and its activities
∙ insufficient staff to complete a task
delegation
when significant tasks are handed over to a subordinate in the organisation. generally staff are given opportunities to show initiative and challenge their capacities in handling work objectives. they may display a capability to take more on a more responsible position and this may be an opportunity to develop such a capability.
delegation requirements and advantages
requirements:
∙ job is analysed and it is clear what needs to be done
∙ standard for performance is set
∙ realistic deadlines are set
∙ appropriate subordinates must be selected
∙ tasks clearly communicated to subordinate
∙ task assessed on completion and feedback is given
advantages:
∙ time saving for management they can get more done
∙ employees skill development extending the skill of the subordinate
∙ improved job satisfaction, subordinate will feel valued if manager is relying on them
problem solving and decision making
involves making choices among possible cources of action. problem solving consists of a series of decisions in a logical manner to assist in resolving an organizational issue. the six step approach to decision making/problem solving: DODDSE
DODDSE
1. Define the objective
2. Outline facts
3. Decide on the cause of the problem
4. Develop several feasible solutions
5. Select the preferred alternative an implement it
6. Evaluate the effectiveness of the solution
stress management
certain levels of stress can be beneficial in achieving goals and outcomes – however too much stress can lead to subsequent reduced capacity to function effectively. negative effects of stress is known as ‘dystress’ and exists when the environment is in excess of the employee’s capacity to cope. stress usually impacts different people differently.
emotional intelligence (EQ)
EQ refers to the way people handle their emotions and their relationships. it is centered on SELF RESTRAINT and COMPASSION. a manager of strong intelligence will control their emotions to manage the situation in the best manner. it is rarely productive to simply “let-fly” with a bout of rage.
management styles vs management skills
managers of different styles employ different management skills differently with different purposes.
∙ autocratic and persuasive styles involve predominantly “top-down” communication
∙ managers with better understanding of emotional intelligence will be more effective in persuasion
∙ negotiation will be more existent in the participative style where the manager may need to to convince employees of a decision
∙ problem solving is tackled very differently between autocratic and participative, autocratic; “do this,” participative managers would discuss things with employee before deciding on a fair course of action.