Management Skills Rutgers mid term 1

Work group
A group that interacts primarily to shareninformation and to make decisions to help each member perform within his ornher area of responsibility. No need for joint effort. No positive synergy
Work Team
Generates positive synergy. Individual efforts results in level of performance that is greater than the sum of those individual inputs
Distinguishing dimensions
Hierarchy (vertical or horizontal), relatedly l, degree autonomy… functional diversity, physical:geographic proximity
Team effectiveness
Generally determined using objective measures of team productivity, team performance, team member satisfaction
Context
Adequate resources, leadership and structure , climate of trust and PERS
Composition
Members abilities, personality, diversity, team size
Work design
Enhances motivation because increase sense of ownership and responsibility.
Process
Common purpose, specific goals, team efficacy, conflict levels and social loafing
Cross functional teams
Team made up of employees from about the same hierarchical level but from different work areas
Mental models
Knowledge and beliefs about how work gets done
Problem solving teams
Work team compromised of employees from the same department whose focus is improving work process and mehjids
Relationship conflicts
Conflicts based on interpersonal incompatibilities l, tensions and animosity toward others
Self managed teams
Group of employee who perform highly related or interdependent jobs and take on many of the responsibility of their former supervisors
Skill variety
The opportunity to use different skills and talents
Task conflicts
Disagreements among team members about task content
Tasks identity
A whole and identifiable task or product
Task significance
The impact that execution of task of project has on others
Team efficacy
Team members belief that they can succeed at the tasks at hand
Virtual teams
teams in which computer technology ties together physically dispersed members
Work groups
A group that interacts primarily to share info and to make decisions to help each members perform within his or her area of responsibility
Self awareness
Knowing ones emotions, strength , weaknesses , drives and their impact on others
Self regulation
Controlling or redirecting disruptive emotions and impulses
Motivation
Being driven to achieve for the sake of achievement
Empathy
Considering others feelings especially when making decisions
Social skill
Managing relationships to move people on desired directions
Nature
Impact of inherited predisposition
Nurture
Impact of environmental factors
Openess
Tendency to enjoy re experience and ideas
Conscientiousness
Tendency to show self discipline , to strive for competence and achievement
Extraversion
Tendency to seek stimulation and to enjoy the company of other people
Agreeablness
Tendency to be compassionate towards others
Neuroticism
Tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily
Type A
Competitiveness, irritable .. work faster even in absence deadline. Perform poorly on tasks requiring patience
Type B
Relaxed, easy going. Perform well on tasks requiring accuracy and those involving complexed judgements
Positive affectivity
Joy enthusiasm.. Low: apathy, sluggish
Negativity affectivity
Fair,nervousness… low: calm and relaxed
Achievement motivation
Desire to excel at various tasks- to succeed and tookdo better than others
Affective states
Current emotional state or condition
Consensus
The extent to which other people behave in the same manner as the person we are judging; one of these info inputs evaluated in making causal attribution
Consistency
The extent to which the person we are judging acts the same way at other times
Constraints
Factors that discourage certain behaviors
Corresponding inferences
Judgements about ppl dispositions that correspond to what we have observed of their actions
Distinctiveness
The extent to which this person behaves in the same manner in other contexts;
Emotional stability
The tendency to see oneself as confident, secure and steady
Facilitators
Factors that encourage certain behaviors
Fundamental attribution error
The strong tendency to explain other actions in terms of internal rather than external causes
Generalized self efficacy
A persons beliefs about his or her capacity to perform specific tasks successfully
Golem effect
The tendency for an individual to perform poorly due to others low expectations of them; negative form of self fulfilling prophecy
Halo effect
The tendency for a person overall impression to bias his or her assessment of another on specific dimensions
Intereactionist perspective
A philosophical approach dominant in the field of organizational behavior which posits that human behavior is driven both by the personal characteristics of an individual and environmental
Job demands
The set of tasks and duties associated with a specific job
Learning
Relatively permanent change in behavior occurring as a result of experience
Locus of control
The extent to which individuals feel that they are able to control things in a manner that affects them
Merit based pay systems
Pay and other forms of compensation are based on performance
Mood states
Diffuse, temporary feelings that vary in terms of intensity , duration and valence
Personality
The unique and relatively stable pattern of behavior thoughts and emotions shown by individuals
Pygmalion effect
The tendency for an individual to improve performance due to others high expectations of them
Self esteem
The overall value one place on oneself as a person
Self fulfilling prophecy
Tendency for someone’s expectations about another to cause that individual to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations
Social norms
Established or taken for granted socially acceptable behaviors
Social perception
The process integrating and interpreting info about others as to understand them accuratelyn
Stereotype
Beliefs that all members of specific groups share similar traits and behavior
Team halo effect
The tendency for people to credit teams for their success but not told them accountable for their failure
Diverse viewpoints
Diverse teams offered broader and overlooked solutions than those of homogenous teams
Diverse customers
Companies are better positioned to understand a diverse customer base if they have members of those groups within the organization
Attract and retain talent
Recruiting from a more diverse talent pool affords organizations the opportunity to attract and retain the best and he brigghest
Cost of losing women and minorities
Turnover costs are significant ; women and minorities may be more likely to change organization if they have reached a glass ceiling in their current organization
Profitability
Prior studies have linked more diverse organizations with higher profitability
Brainwashing
Being programmed by ones culture such that one become less open to alternative modes of
Behavior and understanding
Diversity
Differences and similarities with respect to the ethnicity , race, culture, gene dee, age, functional, and educational backgrounds, lifestyle preferences, tenure with organizations, personality trait and ways of thinkobg
Ethnocentrism
The exaggerated tendency to think that characteristics of ones own group or race are superior those of other groups and races
Fit in
To adopt the superficial characteristics of the majority
Perceived competence
How an individual and their job performance are seen by others in the organization
Stereotyping
Assign identical characteristics to any ppl in a group regardless of the actual variation among members of the group
Ethics
Standard of conduct that indicate how one should behave based on moral duties and virtues arising from principles about right and wrong
Green washing
The disingenuous attempt to place importance on environmental concerns
Intellectual property theft
Failure to respect parents and copyright law or pay for using what other firms or individuals have created
Justice
A personal evaluation about the ethical and moral standing of managerial conduct
Leadership vision
A compelling image of an achievable future
Piracy
Making initiations of brand name me and goods
Sustainability
Meeting the needs of present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs
Value conflict
The tension that arises when facing a choice of acting in accordance with two or more values
Value congruence
Shared Systems of value between two entities
Value
Core belief or desire that guide or motivate attitudes and actions; what you hold most dear and willing to strive or even fight for
Window dressing
The disingenuous attempt to place importance on ethical matters