MANAGEMENT SKILLS AND APPLICATIONS

3 Primary Levels of management in organizations with mulitple level of management are
Senior Management
Middle Management
Supervisory Management
Senior management
Spend most of their time leading and planning
Entrepreneurs
Perform many of the basic management functions that professional managers perform
Leading
managers provide gudance and encoruagement to the employees to better their performance at work
Decision-making
Working to resolve conficts is part of a managers role
Hawthorne plant’s study
research on how lowered levels of illumination in the room helped with productivity
Taylor
stressed the management of operative work
Fayol
emplasized the management of organization
Total Quality Management
emplasizes finding and managing mistakes and up to individuals to correct
Soldiering
actions of employees who intentionally restrict output of the organization
Grapevines
informal channels of communication within organizations that end to be highly inaccurate.
Perception
beings only when the sense organs receive a visual or verbal stimulus
Paralanguage
is a form of nonverbal communication which includes the pitch tempo, loudness and hesitations in the verbal communication.
Interpersonal communication
involves sending and receiving verbal and nonverbal messages
Active listening
noting the spearker’s tone as well as his or her body language is a part of
3 communication skills required of managers
Interpersonal
Conceptual
Paralanguage
Hat of management task
Planning
Organizing
Staffing
Leading
Control
International trade
exchanging goods and services between countries
Law of comparative advantage
producers should produce the goods they are most efficient at producing and purchase from others the goods they are less efficient at producing
Tariffs
Are government-imposed taxes charged on goods imported into a country
Quotas
Estabish the maximum quantity of a product that can be imported or exported during a given period
Embargo
Involves stopping teh flow exports to ro imports from a foreign country
Global Economy
Is an economy in which companies compete actively with businesses from around the world
Free Trade Area
Is a region whithin which trade restrictions are reduced or eliminated
Exports
goods and services sold to other countries
Imports
goods and services purchased from other countries
Contingency plans
addrss the what-ifs of the manager’s job
Management by objectives
A process in which objectives set by a subordinate and a supervisor must be reached within a given time period
Strategic management
is the application of the most basic planning process at the highest levels of the organization
3 step strategic management process
formualtion phase, evaluation phase, implementation phase
SWOT
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats
Synectics
a technique for improving creative problem solving by putting something you don’t know in terms of something you do you know
Brainstorming
Presenting a problem to a group and allowign grou members to produce a large quantity of ideas for it solution with no criticism initially allowed
Brainwriting
A technique in which a group is presented with a problem situation and members anonymously write down ideas then exchange papers with others who build on ideas, and pass them on until all members have participated
Gordon Technique
Differs from brainstorming in that no one but the group leader knows the exact nature of the real problem under consideration. A key word is used to describe a problem area.
Nominal group technique
highly structured technique for solving group tasks that minimizes personal interactions to encourage activity and reduce pressures toward conformity
Sherman antitrust
makes it illegal for companies to monopolize trade
sarbanes-oxley act
Public company accounting eform and investors protection
Clayton Act
makes it illegal to charge different prices to different wholesale customers; also bans requiring customers to purchase a second good
Clear Water
Gives the EPA authority to set water standards
Clean air
Regulates air emissions
Wheeler-Lea
Bans unfair or deceptive acts of practices, including false adverstising, must inform cusumers of possible negative consequences of using products
national Environmental Policy
Created by EPa
Toxic Substances Control
Gives the EPa the ability to track chemicals
Corporate law
corporations can be defined as a business formed under state or federal statues that is authorized to act as a legal person
Copyright
the exclusive, legal right of a person to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her own literary, musical, or artistic creations
Organization
the act of organizing a business or business-related activity
Empowerment
is a very positive direction for tdays managers.
Empowerment
allows managers to use their position of authority.
Responsibility
accountablility for goal attainment, use of resources, and adherence to organizational policy
Power
ability to influence, command, or apply force
Authority
Legitimate exercise of position power
Parity principle
authority and responsiblity must conincide
Management by exception
managers should concentrate their efforts on matters that deviate significantly from normal and let subordinates handle routiine matters
Scalar principle
refers to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively manage; span of management is affected
Span of management
specifies the chain of command, one link at a time
centralized management
less control and have to answer or conform more
decentralized management
have more control on how things are done
mechanistic
military, banks (more stringant policies and procedures)
organic
achiteture firms (able to work outside the box, and is more flexible)
contigency approach
states that the most appropriate structure depends on the technology used, the rate of environmental change, and other dynamic forces.
departmenalization
groupin of jobs into related work units
functional departmentalization
occurs when organizational units are defined by the nature of work, such as production, marketing, finance, or HR
product departmentalization
has all activities needed to produce and market a product or service under a single manager
geographic departmentalization
defines organizational units by territories; it is most likely to occur in organizations that maintain physically dispersed and autonomous operations or offices
customer departmentalization
organizes units based on the customers served
hybrid departmentalization
occurs when the organization uses more than one type of departmentalization
flat strutcture
has few levels, large spans of management at each level
group think
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives (go along with the group and members are unwilling to criticize each other)
4 phases of life of teams
forming –
norming –
storming –
performing –