Management Quiz 1

1) Which of the following is not an example of organizational inefficiency? A) Hiring the wrong people
B) Failing to reach goals that sustain the company’s competitive advantage C) Losing a key contributor
D) Making poor investment decisions.
2) Which of the following is true concerning organizational effectiveness and efficiency?
A) A firm is effective when it uses its resources in the best possible way.
B) A firm with excellent goals cannot fail.
C) A firm is ineffective when it hires the wrong people.
D) A firm is efficient when it does things right and effective when it does the right
3) Which of the following is not considered one of the key issues influencing business today?
A) An emphasis on customer service B) Management of change
C) A strong economy
D) The need for higher business ethics
4) Which level of management is responsible for implementing the directives of senior executives?
A) Tactical managers
B) Strategic managers
C) Day-to-day supervisors D) Operational managers
5) Operational managers are responsible for A) overall responsibility of the firm.
B) day-to-day supervision.
C) producing the firm’s product.
D) implementing the directives of strategic managers.
6) With today’s more decentralized organizations, which of the following is likely to occur?
A) Employees are less likely to be asked to manage themselves. B) Employees have less autonomy to set their own objectives.
C) Employees are not encouraged to use their own expertise.
D) Employees are less dependent on supervisors to tell them what to do
7) Which type of team is comprised of members with diverse backgrounds? A) Cross-functional team
B) Cross-disciplinary team
C) Managerial team
D) Quality team
8) Which of the following should organizations avoid when trying to reinforce the team concept?
A) Give autonomy to teams to make their own decisions.
B) Reward the contributions of individual employees.
C) Select team members who are different yet complement each other. D) Support teams whose task is to think outside the box
9) Which of the following is not considered one of the four management functions?
A) Planning
B) Leading
C) Organizing
D) Informing
10) When managers are measuring performance, comparing it to objectives, implementing necessary changes, and monitoring progress, which function of management are they performing?
A) Planning
B) Controlling
C) Organizing
D) Leading
11) Which activity would reflect a manager engaging in the organizing function?
A) Setting future objectives
B) Communicating organizational goals
C) Collecting quality feedback
D) Delegating tasks
12) The three categories of Mintzberg’s managerial roles are
A) interpersonal, informational, and decisional.
B) planning, organizing, and leading.
C) entrepreneur, disturbance handler, and negotiator.
D) monitor, disseminator, and spoke
13) Which of the following is not true concerning KPIs?
A) KPI refers to key performance indicators.
B) KPIs are long-term.
C) KPIs need not be quantifiable.
D) The goals for a KPI may change.
14) Mintzberg’s interpersonal roles include which of the following? A) Entrepreneur, disturbance handler, and resource allocator
B) Monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson
C) Negotiator, leaders, and spokesperson
D) Figurehead, leader, and liaison
15) Niccolo Machiavelli described leadership and presented a cynical view of human nature in what classic book?
A) The Art of War
B) The Prince
C) The Wealth of Nations
D) The Principles of Scientific Management
16) Who first observed that the division of labor was responsible for revolutionary gains in factory output?
A) Frederick Taylor
B) Sun Tsu
C) Adam Smith
D) Niccolo Machiavelli
17) Scientific management
A) ensures workers are empowered to decide how best to do the job.
B) emphasizes cross training of employees.
C) avoids standardized productivity quotas.
D) encourages management to share
18) In scientific management, the role of management is to
A) execute the work using scientific principles.
B) plan work methods using scientific principles.
C) solicit employee input to determine how the work should be performed.
D) empower workers.
19) When workers avoid doing their best work, it is referred to as A) soldiering.
B) empowering.
C) synergy.
D) equifinality.
20) Time and motion studies using the stopwatch and motion picture camera to improve workplace efficiencies were introduced by
A) Henry Ford.
B) Frederick Taylor.
C) Henry Gantt.
D) Frank and Lillian Gilbreth.
21) Which of the following is not considered a shortcoming of scientific management?
A) It did not appreciate the social context of work.
B) It paid too much attention to the needs of workers beyond pay. C) It often led to dehumanizing working conditions.
D) It prohibited employee initiative.
22) The percentage of unionized workers
A) has increased in the manufacturing sector.
B) has declined to less than 10% in 2012.
C) has focused very successfully on white collar workers.
D) continues to remain about the same since the 1940s.
23) With a focus on statistical tools and techniques to improve efficiency, the scientific management perspective became known as
C) the operational perspective.
D) the quantitative management school.
24) Quantitative methods used in the quantitative management school include A) quality management, bureaucratic management, and MRP.
B) EOQ, soldiering, and division of labor.
C) break-even analysis, EOQ, and MRP.
D) MRP, quality management, and time and motion studies.
25) At the break-even point
A) the total costs of inventory are minimized.
B) there is neither a profit nor a loss.
C) demand for complementary items is balanced.
D) reorder points equal total holding costs.
26) MRP is a useful tool to
A) recover fixed and variable costs. B) minimize total inventory costs.
C) improve product quality.
D) reduce inventory costs.
27) Which of the following quality experts advanced the use of statistics for constant quality improvement and assisted Japanese business leaders after World War II?
A) W. Edward Deming
B) Joseph M. Juran
C) Phillip Crosby
D) Arnand V. Feigenbaum
28) Which of the following statements about TQM is true?
A) In TQM, quality is the role of quality control specialists.
B) In TQM, satisfying the customer is primarily the responsibility of marketing.
C) The TQM perspective views quality as the central purpose of the organizationwhereas the operational perspective focuses on efficiency.
D) Most major firms have not yet adopted TQM.
29) Which of the following is not a key element of the TQM approach? A) Focus on the customer
B) Continuous improvement
C) Employee involvement
D) Scientifically study each part of a task and develop the best method of performing the task
30) Building quality into the product rather than relying on quality inspections after the product has already been made reflects a principle of
A) scientific management. B) TQM.
D) cross-functional teams.
31) A traditional perspective of management that examines the entire organization as a rational entity is
A) total quality management.
B) scientific management.
C) administrative management.
D) bureaucratic management.
32) Which of the following would be least likely to be a characteristic of an ideal bureaucracy as defined by Weber?
A) Career advancement based on merit
B) Well defined hierarchy
C) Few rules and procedures
D) Specialization of labor
33) The employee handbook today is an example of the use of impersonal rules and procedures to provide a fair and consistent way of dealing with employees. This is a positive contribution made by which approach to management?
A) Scientific management
B) Bureaucratic management
C) Total quality management
D) Administrative management
34) Weber’s principle of specialization builds on the earlier work of A) Adam Smith.
B) Frederick Taylor.
C) Sun Tsu.
D) Niccolo Machiavelli.
35) When reliability and efficiency are most important to a business, which approach to management is likely to be the best?
A) Bureaucratic approach
B) Administrative approach
C) Scientific management
D) Total quality management
36) Which approach views management as a profession that can be learned by understanding basic principles?
A) Bureaucratic approach
B) Administrative approach C) Scientific management
D) Total quality management
37) Which of the following is not a principle of the administrative approach to management?
A) Unity of leadership
B) Unity of command
C) Unity of direction
D) Equity
38) Unity of command suggests that
A) employees’ efforts should be focused on achieving organizational objectives.
B) each employee should be assigned to only one supervisor.
C) the chain of command should follow a top-down direction.
D) workers must minimize deviations from standard procedures.
39) In which type of organization are Fayol’s administrative principles most likely to still be applicable?
A) Apple
B) Microsoft
C) Toys R Us
D) The US Army
40) Which approach to management argues that human factors alone may affect workplace efficiency?
A) The administrative perspective
B) The bureaucratic perspective
C) The behavioral perspective
D) The quality perspective
41) The work of Mary Parker Follett and the Hawthorne studies were important in which approach to management?
A) The administrative perspective
B) The bureaucratic perspective
C) The behavioral perspective
D) The quality perspective
42) Which approach to management would suggest that if Marcus has more knowledge of the work process than his manager, then the manager should act more in the role of coach than monitor or supervisor?
A) The administrative perspective
B) The bureaucratic perspective
C) The behavioral perspective
D) The quality perspective
43) What phenomenon suggests that when a manager shows concern for employees, their motivation and productivity levels are likely to improve?
A) The halo effect
B) The Hawthorne effect
C) The horn effect
D) The Mayo effect
44) Which of the following studies suggested that the influence of the work group may be as significant as the influence of the supervisor?
A) McGregor’s Theory X
B) Deming’s TQM
C) Taylor’s Midvale Steel studies
D) The Hawthorne studies
45) Jason’s manager believes that he can best motivate Jason by providing an environment where Jason can satisfy his most pressing needs. Which of the following theories reflects the thinking of Jason’s manager?
A) McGregor’s Theory X
B) Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
C) Deming’s TQM
D) Taylor’s scientific management
46) Which of the following is not an assumption of McGregor’s Theory Y?
A) Work is as natural as play or rest.
B) The average person learns, under the right conditions, not only to accept, but to
seek responsibility.
C) The average person prefers to be directed.
D) The intellectual potential of most people is only partially utilized in most
47) Which approach to management believes that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts?
A) The operational approach
B) The systems approach
C) The administrative approach
D) The behavioral approach
48) Microsoft’s compatibility of business applications software with the Windows operating system drives software sales. This is an example of
A) synergy.
B) equifinality.
C) a subsystem.
D) an open system.
49) When an organization recognizes that they can reach the same goals through a number of different routes, they are demonstrating
A) synergy.
B) a closed system.
C) a subsystem.
D) equifinality.
50) Which of the following statements is true concerning contingency theory?
A) Contingency theory reinforces scientific management’s approach of the “one best
B) Contingency theory suggests that managers must use the best management
practice in all situations.
C) Contingency theory suggests that no strategy is good or bad in and of itself, but
instead depends on the situation.
D) Contingency theory suggests that organizations that can learn faster than their
competitors have an advantage in the marketplace.
51) The disaggregated corporation is known as the
A) modular organization.
B) intangible organization.
C) functional organization.
D) learning organization.
52) An example of the shift of resource investment in today’s organizations emphasizing innovation is
A) from product design to plant and equipment.
B) from plant and equipment to know-how.
C) from machines to plant and equipment.
D) from virtual teams to outsourced partners.
53) The trend to using machines for routine tasks in factories to free up workers to use more of their abilities is reflected in which of the following organizations?
A) The modular organization
B) The functional organization
C) The learning organization
D) The intangible organization
54) Which of the following is not identified as one of the most common career tracks in management?
A) Human resource manager
B) Accounting or finance manager
C) Sports team manager
D) Entrepreneur
55) As managers move higher up their career ladders, their jobs are likely to focus more on
A) sales.
B) specialized knowledge.
C) communication.
D) operations.
To be successful, a company must first be efficient before addressing how to be effective.
John, the marketing manager overseeing the launch of his company’s new product, is considered a strategic manager.
To be successful as a manager requires that you learn how to be flexible and adaptable.
An organizational team comprised of representatives from marketing, accounting, operations, engineering, and human resources would be considered a cross-functional team.
When the accounting manager reviews this month’s sales, compares them to the sales budget then takes corrective action, she is performing the controlling function of management.
Frederick Taylor’s managerial roles were grouped into three categories: interpersonal, information, and decisional.
Classical management insights from such thinkers as Sun Tsu, Niccolo Machiavelli, and Adam Smith are no longer valuable to organizations today.
The operational perspective on management attempted to discover the one best way of doing a job.
A key element of TQM is the focus on the customer.
A matrix organization which requires employees to report to both a functional and a project manager violates Fayol’s unity of direction.
What are the three issues strongly influencing business in the twenty-first century?
the management of change, an emphasis on customer service, and the need for higher business ethics
What is the difference between efficiency and effectiveness?
A firm is effective when its goals are met. A firm is efficient when it makes
the best possible use of its resources. Doing things right is efficient and doing the
right things is effective.
What are the three levels of management? What are they each responsible for?
The three levels of management are strategic managers, tactical managers, and operational managers. Strategic managers are the senior executives with
the overall responsibility for the firm. Tactical managers are responsible for implementing the directives of strategic managers. And operational managers are responsible for day-to-day supervision.
Discuss the four functions of management. Provide an example of each.
The four functions of management are planning/strategizing, organizing,
leading, and controlling. When managers are seeing future objectives, they are engaged in planning. When managers are defining the roles for employees or delegating tasks to them, they are engaged in the organizing function. When managers are inspiring and motivating their employees, they are leading. And when managers collect feedback, identify problems, and then take corrective action, they are engaged in controlling.
List Mintzberg’s managerial roles.
The interpersonal roles are figurehead, leader, and liaison. The information roles are monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson. The decisional roles are entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator.
Discuss Adam Smith’s contribution to early management thought.
Adam Smith was the first to recognize the principle of division of labor in
the manufacturing environment. His work with the division of labor for pin workers was responsible for significant gains in the output of factories. This work laid the foundation of scientific management.
Discuss Taylor’s four principles of scientific management.
1. Scientifically study each part of a task and develop the best method of performing
the task.
2. Carefully select workers and train them to perform the tasks by using the
scientifically developed method.
3. Cooperate fully with workers to ensure that they use the proper method.
4. Divide work and responsibility so that management is responsible for planning
work methods using scientific principles and workers are responsible for
executing the work accordingly.
What are the key characteristics of Weber’s ideal bureaucracy?
The key characteristics of Weber’s ideal bureaucracy are specialization of
labor, formal rules and procedures, impersonality, well-defined hierarchy, and
career advancement based on merit.
Contrast the behavioral and operational perspectives on management.
The behavioral perspective incorporates psychological and social processes
of human behavior to improve productivity and work satisfaction. Operational theorists view management as a mechanical process in which employees would fit into any job or organization designed for optimum efficiency if given monetary incentives to do so.
What is the Hawthorne effect?
The Hawthorne effect was discovered during the Hawthorne studies at the
Western Electric plant when Mayo and Roethlisberger were studying the effects of physical working conditions on employee productivity. They concluded that the special attention paid to employees motivates them to put greater effort into their jobs. When a manager shows concern for employees, their motivation and productivity levels are likely to improve.
What are two key aspects of the human relations movement?
The two key aspects of the human relations movement are focused on
employee motivation and leadership style. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory addressed motivation and Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Y addressed leadership style.
What is the systems approach to management and how does it differ from the operational, bureaucratic, administrative, and behavioral approaches to management?
The operational, bureaucratic, administrative, and behavioral approaches studied management by dividing it into elements or components. While taking things apart is useful for analytical purposes, in reality all relevant parts of organizational activity interact with each other. Reductionism in management thought may lead to simplistic prescriptions and may not help us understand why some firms perform at higher levels than others. System theorists believe that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts.
What is synergy? Provide an example.
Synergy exists when the whole is greater than the sum of parts. It can be
explained as 2 + 2 = 5. Microsoft is a good example. The company sells more business applications software because all its applications software products are compatible with the Windows operating system. The Windows operating system provides synergy for its business applications unit because the compatibility creates value for the customer.
What is contingency theory?
Contingency theory suggests that what works for one organization may not
work for another since situational characteristics (known as contingencies) exist. As a result, managers must be flexible in order to apply practices and techniques that are most appropriate to specific situations. For example, leaders whose style does not “match” the situation, will find themselves ineffective.
Discuss the modular organization and the role of outsourcing.
The modular organization is also called the disaggregated corporation.
Every function not regarded as crucial is outsourced to an independent organization. Internal organizational forms are simplified as managers contract with outsourcing partners rather than supervise long-term company employees.