Management & organizational behavior

Management
the attainment of organizational goals in an effective manner through planning, organizing, leading, controlling organizational resources
planning
identifying goals for future organizational performance & deciding on the tasks & use of resources needed to attain them
Why is innovation important?
it is a hypercompetitive, global environment
managers
the executive function of the organization
organizing
Assigning tasks, delegating authority and allocating resources.
leading
The use of influence to motivate employees to achieve goals.
controlling
Monitoring activities and taking corrective action when needed.
Effectiveness
the degree to which the organizations produce customer value
Efficiency
the use of minimal resources to produce desired output
organization
social entity that is goal directed and deliberately structured
What are the 3 management skills?
conceptual, human & technical
conceptual skills
cognitive ability to see the organization as a whole system
human skills
the ability to work with and through other people
technical skills?
the understanding and proficiency in the performance of specific tasks
What are the vertical differences?
Top Managers: Strategic
Middle Managers: Tactical
First-Line Managers: Operational
What are the horizontal differences?
Functional departments like advertising, manufacturing, sales
Include both line and staff functions
What did Mintzberg say?
Managerial tasks can be characterized into characteristics and roles
What do non profits focus on & what do the struggle with?
social impact but they struggle with effectiveness
What does the scientific management emphasize?
scientifically determined jobs & management practices as the way improve efficiency & labor productivity
What are the 3 parts of the classical perspective & who was the father of it?
scientific, bureaucratic organizations & administrative principles; Frederick Winslow Taylor
What are bureaucratic organizations?
organizations would be managed on an impersonal, rational basis.
What do administrative principles focus on & whose idea was it?
on the total organization with 14 principles including the 5 functions of management; Henri Foyal
What does the humanistic perspective include?
Human Relations Movement
Human Resources Perspective
Behavioral Sciences
What is the Human Relations Movement ?
the idea that truly effective control comes from within the individual worker rather than from strict, authoritarian control
What is the Human Resources Perspective
to maintain an interest in worker participation & focus on job tasks and theories of motivation
What is behavioral sciences?
uses scientific methods & draws from sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, & other disciplines
What did the hawthorne studies conclude?
increased output due to managers’ better treatment of employees
What is the management science perspective & what did it introduce?
Use of technology and programming for optimizing operations; operations research & mangement
What is Systems Theory?
A holistic view of management as a interrelated parts to achieve a common purpose.
What is Contingency View?
Successful resolution of organizational problems depends on situations.
What is Total Quality Management?
Management of the total organization to deliver quality.
What are the 4 key elements to TQM?
Employee involvement, Focus on customer, Benchmarking, Continuous improvement
What does the General environment influence?
operations and performances
What is the Internal environment?
elements within the organization’s boundaries
What is the International Dimension
Portion of the external environment that represents events originating in foreign countries as well as opportunities for U.S. companies in other countries.
What is Socio-Cultural Dimension
represents demographic characteristics, norms, customs, & values of the general population
What is the Task Environment?
Sectors that have a direct working relationship with the organization
Who is part of the task environment?
customers, competitors, suppliers & labor market
What is a Joint Venture?
an alliance of organizations for a specific project
What is Corporate social responsibility?
the obligation of organization management to make decisions and take actions that will enhance the welfare and interests of society as well as the organization
what does ethics fall between?
law and free choice
What is a ethical dilemma?
a situation concerning right or wrong when values are in conflict
What is Utilitarian Approach ?
moral behaviors should produce the greatest good for the greatest number
What is Individualism Approach?
acts are moral when they promote the individual’s best long-term interests; easily misinterpreted to support immediate self-gain; “do no harm”
What is Moral -Rights Approach?
moral decisions are those that best maintains the rights of those affected
What is Justice Approach ?
decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairness, and impartiality
What are the 3 types of justices?
Procedural Justice, Distributive Justice, & Compensatory Justice
What is Procedural Justice?
Policies and procedures
what is Distributive Justice?
different treatment of people should not be based on arbitrary characteristics.
what is Compensatory Justice?
individuals should be compensated for the cost of their injuries by the party responsible.
What positively impacts financial performance?
ethical and socially responsible actions
what are stakeholders?
any group within or outside the organization that has a stake in the organization’s performance.
What are the 4 strategies for managing stakeholders?
confrontation, accommodation, damage control & proactive
What are ethical structures?
systems, positions and programs to implement ethical behavior
What is whistle blowing?
employees disclosing of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices
What do managers control & monitor?
Work processes, Employee behavior, Financial resources, & Profitability
What is control?
The systematic process of regulating organizational activities to meet expectations in Established plans,Targets & Standards
What are common forms of control?
Sales, Revenue & Profit
There is a growing need to measure intangible aspects of?
Customer Service & Customer Retention
What does a Comprehensive management control system balance?
Traditional financial measures with Customer Service, Internal Business Processes, & Learning and Growth
What are the 3 timings of feedback control?
Feedforward control, Concurrent control, Feedback control
What does Feedforward control prevent?
prevent problems before they occur
When does concurrent control take place?
as the work process is being carried out
when does feedback control occur?
Occurs after a process has been completed
What does open-book management allow?
employees to see for themselves—through charts, computer printouts, meetings, and so forth—the financial condition of the company
What type of philosophy is TQM?
is a decentralized control philosophy
What does TQM infuse?
quality into every activity in a company through continuous improvement