Management of German Nationalism

Germany
Defined by Confederation, dominated by Austria, Bismarck redefined Germany by removing the realistic achievement of a Grossdeutsch solution. His Kleindeutsch Germany was partly a victory for his management of German nationalism, but German nationalism had managed him to some extent because it had forced him to pursue a nationalist agenda. William’s approach to managing nationalism was to encourage it. Unfortunately, he lost control because nationalists wanted to go further than he wanted so he was ultimately managed by the force that he had unleashed.
Metternich (had influence 1809-1848)
Management: Metternich maintained power in the short term and did not fall as a result of his opposition to nationalism; The Metternich System; in some respects the soul of Germany was tied up with the military because the red, gold and black of the nationalists were colours taken from the Lutzow Freikorps of 1813, during the war of liberation against the French, but Metternich used the military to crush nationalism in its post 1815 form; Metternich failed to take the economic lead or deal with the Zollverein (1834)

– 1809 became minister
– 1821 Austrian chancellor

Social order should be defended
– Liberalism and nationalism bad
Could end multinational Austrian empire

– October 1817 500 students of Wartburg festival
– Celebration
○ Battle of Leipzig
○ Martin Luther anniversary vs pope
– Turned into a demonstration against the princes
Metternich places university under supervision, horrified by the actions of the students

1819 Student extremist kills Kotzebue
– Murder prompted Metternich
– Carlsbad decrees
–>Revolution check
Disband student societies restrictions on universities, suppression of Nationalism = successful

Metternich wanted further repressions but he was stopped by Wurttenburg, Bavaria, and Saxony-Weimar

1932 – Hambach – show of Nationalism getting out of control, 30,000 attended

1834 Metternich summons the confederation representatives
More repression
Did not join the Zollverein

13 March 1848 Berlin
– Mostly Self-employed craftsmen
– Metternich in Vienna dismissed
– United Diet and constitution concession
230 people die as troops try to take back city

Bismarck (1862-90)
Management: Bismarck managed nationalism in that he used it to bolster his power, but he had to adopt a nationalist agenda that was not of his own choosing; managed social nationalism by increasingly convincing the public that the rights of the individual were less important than the success of the state; Bismarck managed the Prussian military to force nationalism into a path more suited to his own objectives. It can also be argued that the use of the military in 1870-71 forced a reluctant Bismarck to unite Germany. The issue of the army budget also requires attention; Bismarck was able to ride a wave of economic growth, but did relatively little to manage it.

Colonialisation
– Might alienate Britain
– German Colonial Union 1882 (industrialists)
– 1884 Elections = patriotic support
– Germany gain 1,000,000 square miles of land
○ Inc. Togoland and Cameroons
-> Displayed Bismarck listening to the thoughts of nationalists who wanted Germany to expand and be stronger, rather than thinking what would be best for just Prussia.

Uniting nationalism – Berlin to Baghdad railway

Bulgarian Crisis
– Austria and Russia end up squaring up
– 1887 Triple Alliance A, G, and Italy
– 1887 First Mediterranean Agreement (inc. Br.)
– Anti-Russian sentiment

Economic – 1879 Tariff Act Vs PCU (1818) and Zollverein (1834) – Bismarck brought economic unity, successfully managing nationalism.

After assassination attempts of Kaiser
– October 1878 anti-socialist bill was passed BUT 1890 had 35 seats
– State socialism was introduced = WELFARE
– 1883 Sickness Insurance Act (13 weeks of sick pay)
– 1889 Old Age and Disability Act
– Try to wean away from socialism
SPD stay strong though

‘Frankenstein Clause’
– Bismarck wanted financial independence
– Reichstag propose that the 130 million revenue be split up
– Between the German States

German Catholics instead form their own party, the Centre Party
– Bismarck suspicious
– Old Catholics, 5000, refuse the Papal infallibility doctrine and as a result, Catholic Bishops fire them from being professors and teachers
Bismarck latches on, Berlin Post writes articles in 1872

Failure of kulturkampf 1872-87 (Catholic group, word suggests an attack on culture, though), Bismarck takes a hard line against Catholics; Centre Party goes from 581,871 to 911,874, – alienates them which only leads to a stronger Catholic movement.

Economic Protectionism
1879 Bismarck ditches free trade and the National Liberals
– Aligns with Centre Party
Introduces Tariffs again

Fall of Bismarck 1890

Kaiser Willhelm II (1888-1918)
Management: William allowed nationalism to develop without being able to control and manage it. Nationalism began to manage the Kaiser with disastrous consequences; William loved the army more than the 2 others. He allowed it great freedom-Zabern 1913 etc. During the war Hindenburg and Ludendorff became virtual military dictators. The symbol of German nationalism, the army, was not effectively managed by William II; Under William the issue of protection was important – this was to help Junkers rather than the economy, naval building and the need to gain colonies.

-Could not suppress the growth of the SDP – 1,000,000 votes in 1890, Reichstag majority in 1912; threat to Centre party — diminished at the outbreak of war, but only resurfaced in 1916-1919.

– Anglo-German rivalry born, especially on the navy front, Wilhelm obsessed with heading up a huge fleet to match the English
Naval expansion, 1898 naval bill, 300,000 in the navy league, 1900 second bill proposed more money spent

Anglo-German naval rivalry
– Britain launch the HMS Dreadnought in 1906
“It is the Germanic race…who are to lead the civilisation of the world” = Wilhelm II to David J. Hill, US ambassador

Nationalism is seen with the “War Raw Materials Office” (1914-18)

WW1 Wilhelm II lost control, kept out of the loop from military developments

Standard of living became very poor – Turnip winter 1916-17; infant mortality reached as much as 50% by 1918.

– Wilhelm II abdicates on 7 November

Conclusion
Conclusion -Metternich was successful in the short term, but one could argue that he simply stored up trouble for the future. Bismarck skilfully manipulated nationalism, but only by taking on board some of its agenda. William unleashed the forces of nationalism which continued to grow to such an extent that he was unable to manage them.
Political
Focus on the maintaining of control/power. Metternich maintained power and did not fall as a result of his opposition to nationalism. The Metternich System. Bismarck managed nationalism in that he used it to bolster his power, but he had to adopt a nationalist agenda that was not of his own choosing. William allowed nationalism to develop without being able to control and manage it. Nationalism began to manage the Kaiser with disastrous consequences.
Social
German nationalists originally saw nationalism as force that would lead to the freedom of the individual. Metternich successfully stifled this in the short term. Bismarck successfully managed this by increasingly convincing the public that the rights of the individual were less important than the success of the state. Under William the growth of the SPD saw the rights of workers becoming an increasingly pressing issue, diminished/managed by the outbreak of war, only to re-surface 1916-1919.
Military
In some respects the soul of Germany was tied up with the military because the red, gold and black of the nationalists were colours taken from the Lutzow Freikorps of 1813, during the war of liberation against the French, but Metternich used the military to crush nationalism in its post 1815 form. Bismarck managed the Prussian military to force nationalism into a path more suited to his own objectives. It can also be argued that the use of the military in 1870-71 forced a reluctant Bismarck to unite Germany. The issue of the army budget also requires attention. William loved the army more than the 2 others. He allowed it great freedom-Zabern 1913 etc. During the war Hindenburg and Ludendorff became virtual military dictators. The symbol of German nationalism, the army, was not effectively managed by William II.
Economic
Metternich failed to take the economic lead or deal with the Zollverein. Bismarck was able to ride a wave of economic growth, but did relatively little to manage it. Under William the issue of protection was important. This was to help Junkers rather than the economy. Look at naval building and the need to gain colonies. Did he manage the economy or did the economy manage him?
Imperialism
Metternich’s imperialism involved Europe and meant that Austria was unwilling to become a purely German power in view of the Hapsburg mission in the Balkans and the ‘drang nach osten’. Hapsburg imperialism prevented Metternich from managing nationalism so he sought to stifle it instead. Bismarck anti imperialism, but used it to his own ends to some extent (Frederick III) but he later claimed that he was forced to do it by public opinion. William was forced to throw Germany’s weight around in imperial affairs by public pressure-a failure to manage/ control.