Management-Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World–Chapter 13

Alderfer’s ERG theory
A human needs theory postulating that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously.
empowerment
The process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their belief that they are influential contributors to the organization.
equity theory
A theory stating that people assess how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs.
expectancy
Employees’ perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals.
expectancy theory
A theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome.
extinction
Withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence
extrinsic reward
Rewards given to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person
goal-setting theory
A motivation theory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end.
growth need strength
the degree to which individuals want personal and psychological development
hygiene factor
Characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision, that can make people dissatisfied
instrumentality
The perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome.
intrinsic reward
reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself
job enlargement
Giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom.
job enrichment
Changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying.
job rotation
Changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom
motivation
Forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts.
stretch goals
targets that are particularly demanding, sometimes even thought to be impossible
law of effect
A law formulated by Edward Thorndike in 1911 stating that behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated
reinforcers
Positive consequences that motivate behavior.
organizational behavior modification (OB mod)
The application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings.
positive reinforcement
Applying consequences that increase the likelihood that a person will repeat the behavior that led to it
negative reinforcement
Removing or withholding a desirable consequence
punishment
Administering an aversive consequence
outcome
A consequence a person receives for his or her performance.
valence
The value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it
Maslow’s need hierarchy
A conception of human needs organizing needs into a hierarchy of five major types.
two-factor theory
Herzberg’s theory describing two factors affecting people’s work motivation and satisfaction.
motivators
Factors that make a job more motivating, such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement
procedural justice
Using fair processes in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible.
Quality of work life programs (QWL)
Programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well being.
psychological contract
A set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them.