Management Information Systems DSST

What is a RFI?
*Request for Information*
– you think you know what you want but need more information from the vendors.
What is a RFQ?
*Request for Quote*
– you know what you want but need information on how vendors would meet your requirements and/or how much it will cost.
What is a RFP?
*Request for Proposal*
– you know you have a *problem but don’t know how you want to solve it.* Has strict procurement rules for content, timeline and vendor responses.
Who came up with the *”Categorical Imperative”* that states, *”action not right for everyone is not right for anyone.”*
Immanuel Kant
What is M-commerce?
*Mobile Commerce*
– cell phones, PDA, etc., engage in *wireless ecommerce*
Total M-commerce sales in *2009*?
$1.2 Billion
M-commerce sales are expected to reach *$23 Billion* by _____?
2015
An example of an *auction site* that uses *C2C business* is?
*EBAY*
– no business services involved
In businesses where *consumers place bids for products and services,* they use which business model? (C2C, C2B, B2C, or B2B)
Consumer to Business (C2B)
The *”Demand Collection Model”* is another name for?
Consumer to Business (C2B)
What are the steps in *Systems Development?*
*A*nalysis | *D*esign | *P*rogramming | *T*esting | *C*onversion |*I*mplementation | *P*roduction |*M*aintenance
What is the *first task* in Systems Analysis?
feasibility study
In Systems development, the *Systems Design* is driven by_______ and _______?
end-users, business priorities
What are the steps in the Testing Step of Systems Development?
*Unit Testing* – checks each program
*System Testing* – checks the system as a whole
*Acceptance* – approve the system to go-live
In the *Conversion step* of Systems Development, what are the methods you can use?
*P*arallel Strategy
*P*ilot study
*D*irect Cutover
*P*hased Approach
Which Conversion method involves running the new system in *Parallel* with the old system?
Parallel Strategy
What is one *major consideration* to keep in mind before you choose the Parallel Strategy Conversion method?
*Expensive!*
– you have to enter data into both systems.
Which step in the Systems Development process would you *fix any bugs* that were missed in the development process?
Maintenance
What are the 2 essential things to do when introducing a New Informational System?
*Documentation* – a technical and user guide
*Training* – ensures system doesn’t fail
What is SDLC?
*System Development Life Cycle Approach*
– a traditional methodology for developing an information system where the process is divided into formal steps that are taken in a particular sequence, with a rigid division of labor between end users and programmers.
The *WATERFALL* approach is another name for?
*SDLC*
– one way flow of activity, once one step is completed move to the next in one direction…like a waterfall.
What are the stages of SDLC?
*P*lanning
*A*nalysis
*D*esign
*I*mplementation
*U*se
What are the disadvantages of SDLC?
*Expensive*
*Time-consuming*
*Inflexible* – specifications are determined early on and too difficult to change later in the project.
What is another type of systems development, where the developers quickly and inexpensively build an *experimental system* for review by end users?
Prototyping
What are the types of Prototyping?
Evolutionary
Requirements
Which Prototype is used when the *end user is unsure of their requirements*, so a prototype is used and then discarded and a new one is built once they figure out their requirements?
Requirements prototype
When would you use the Evolutionary prototype?
*Users know their requirements* and the prototype will be refined during the development process until the users are happy with it.
What’s the advantage of the Prototype Systems Development Approach?
– *User receives a working system much sooner*
– *Encourages communication between user and programmers*
– *Smoother implementation*
What are the drawbacks to using the Prototype Systems Development Approach?
Lack of documention
Unrealistic expectations
What is RAD?
Rapid Application Development
Who developed the RAD System Development Approach and in what year?
*James Martin in 1990*
– process of quickly delivering a working system without sacrificing quality
What are the components of the RAD Systems Development Approach?
– *Management*
– *People*
– *Methodologies*
– *Tools* – primarily 4th generation languages and tools that transform documentation into working software
What is the *MAJOR* advantage of RAD Systems Development Approach vs. the SDLC Approach?
The process *doesn’t need to be carried out sequentially* or in the Waterfall manner like SDLC!
What is JAD?
Joint Application Design
Who developed JAD and when?
*Dan Gielan in 1970’s*
@ NY Telephone Company
What was different about the JAD Systems Development Approach?
Involved the *end user along with the developers to design* the system.
A Systems Development Approach that *combines* SDLC, RAD and Prototyping elements into developing a new system is called?
Phased Development
What are the stages of the *Phased Development Approach?*
– *P*reliminary investigation
– *A*nalysis
– *D*esign
– *P*reliminary construction
– *F*inal construction
– *S*ystem test and Installation
What stage of the Phased Development Approach is the *critical stage* where you discover problems, work out solutions, obtain user feedback?
Preliminary investigation
A Systems Development approach that is *similar to traditional SDLC approach*, but is even more repetitive and incremental, is called?
Object-Oriented System Development
In Object Oriented System Development Approach, the ______ is the *standard unit of development*, combining both data and actions.
Object
Which Systems Development Approach is best suited for *fast-changing organizational environments and for Web applications?*
Object Oriented System Development Approach
What is End User Computing/Development (EUC)?
Development using 4th generation tools with virtually no aid from technical specialist
What are the advantages of EUC?
Speedy construction
High user satisfaction
What are the disadvantages of EUC?
Lack of testing
Lack of documentation
What is CASE?
Computer Aided Software Engineering
Applications that automate some or all of the steps in the SDLC approach are called?
CASE tools
When the CIO is considering *Outsourcing IT*, what are some of the advantages of doing this?
– *Cost savings* (personnel, benefits, etc.)
– *Don’t have to maintain large IT staff*
– *Flexibility* – use only when needed
What are the disadvantages of Outsourcing your IT Department?
– *Perceived loss of control over information systems*
– *Hidden costs*
– *Monitoring* – to ensure services are performed and of quality according to contract
What is BPR?
Business Process Redesign or Reengineering
What is the term used to describe the *reworking or overhaul of obsolete systems*, to improve efficiency, reduce paperwork, and cost savings.
(BPR) Business Process Redesign or Reengineering
What are the different engineering processes utilized in BPR?
– *R*everse Engineering
– *R*estructuring Engineering
– *C*omplete Reengineering / Forward Engineering
What does *Reverse Engineering* involve in the BPR process?
The system is taken apart to see how system works
What does *Restructuring Engineering* involve in the BPR process?
The process of *changing one system into another form while preserving the functionality of the original system.*
The process of *completely redesigning* a new system without preserving any original functionality in the BPR process is called?
Complete Reengineering / Forward Engineering
Which of the Engineering processes in BPR follows the SDLC approach?
Complete Reengineering / Forward Engineering
*Technical Quality* in the BPR process refers to?
How well the system performs *technically*
*Functional quality* in the BPR process refers to?
How well a system *does what it is supposed to do*
The BPR Process has a High Failure rate, why?
Most companies *cannot manage the organizations changes needed for a successful redesign.*
Viruses are hard to alleviate, why?
– They can *replicate* themselves and are easily *transmitted via email*
The differences between a Worm and a Virus is?
*Worms* – cannot replicate
Trojan Horse viruses can replicate and spread via email. True or False?
*False* – cannot replicate or spread via email
What are Ethics?
Principles and beliefs to our actions and behaviors.
Ethics comes from the Greek word “ethos,” which means ?
character
What are the items to consider in dealing with Ethics issues?
– *Accountability* – who is responsible
– *Responsibility* – accepting the consequences
– *Liability* – legal system on guilty process
– *Due process* – legal action process- appeals process
What does Descartes *”Rule of Change,”* state?
“action that is acceptable only if done once, but NOT if repeated again and again, is not right at all’
What are the Four Basic Information Rights?
– *Privacy* – the right to be left alone
– *Accuracy* – accuracy of information about someone
– *Property* – Intellectual Property rights (Copyrights, patents, license agreements)
– *Accessibility* – free access to details about us
The *1973 Fair Information Practices Act* was the cornerstone of the US Privacy Laws of?
1974
Gramm-Leach Bliley Act of 1999 protects what?
Privacy rights of consumers of Financial services.
European Union (EU) Privacy Laws about the collection of personal data state “personal data can only be collected _______?
With user permission
– (EU has very strict personal data laws)
*Cookies* automatically downloaded from certain websites serve what purpose?
– Used to learn your shopping habits
– Store acct numbers, passwords, etc.
Cookies are files left on your hard drive, that store personal information you have entered on their website? True or False?
*True* – Store acct numbers, passwords, preferences you selected, etc.
What are Web Bugs?
– *Invisible or clear GIFs* embedded in web page that monitors a person reading the web page.
– how many people have visited the page
*Email Web Bugs* provide what information tracking?
Has the email been read, if so when?
Define what the purpose of Information Systems is?
A series of interconnect components that work together to collect, process, store, and disseminate information to support managers decision making.
What are the Activities of an IS System?
*I*nput
*O*utput
*F*eedback – (evaluation of the system)
What is CBIS?
Computer Based Information System
Describe what CBIS does?
Relies on computer hardware and software to distribute information
CBIS is a conceptual system. True or False?
*TRUE!* It contains information that contains the physical system – tailored around physical resources
– Information resources are not tangible
What is Information System Literacy
Complete comprehension of the organizational, technical and management dimensions.
A holistic approach!
Systems Analysts, database administrators, network administrators, programmers, & web masters, are ALL Information Specialists. True or False?
True
True or False?
*Information Resources include the following:* Hardware and software, Information specialist, End Users, Facilities, Database, Information
True
What is Information Management?
The process of collecting raw data, converting to useful info, disseminating it, deleting it and replacing it with more current relevant information.
The steps in Information Management are?
– *Relevancy*
– *Accuracy*
– *Timeliness*
– *Completeness* – get all info they need to complete task
What is CIO?
Chief Information Officer
What is the CIO responsible for?
All information resources and services
Long term IT planning
Leading the MIS Department
Understanding the industry they are operating in
Establishing lines of communication with management and business units
Who was the first person to develop concepts to be used in modern computers?
Charles Babbage
Charles Babbage developed what device in 1834?
Difference Engine (Calculator)
Charles Babbage developed the concepts of computer memory, programmable processors, an output devices, and user defined input? True or False
True
This person contributed to math, computer science, and quantum mechanics. His architecture is still used in modern PCs today. Who is this person?
Jon Von Neumann
Jon Von Neumann’s architecture of his early machine featured a CPU with control unit, an ALU, connected to main memory systems and input/output all connected by a bundle of wires called a “bus.” True or False?
True
What was the first marketed computer in US in 1951?
*UNIVAC I*
– Remington Rand, setup in the US Census Bureau
*Early computers* – single task, single user. True or False?
True
Who was the computer industry leader in *1950 and 1960’s?*
IBM
When were the Microcomputer / PC Personal Computer first introduced?
1980’s – 90’s
Personal computer devices are designed for?
Individual use
– laptops, hand held, and tablets
What are the Hardware Components of a Computer?
CPU
Communications devices
Input & output devices
Primary (RAM) and Secondary storage (ROM)
What happens to information when it is *inputted* in a computer?
It is converted into a string of binary digits (0 or 1) in order for the computer to process the information
What is the *smallest* data size in a computer?
1 Bit = Binary Digit (0 or a 1)
How *bits* does it take to make a *byte?*
8 Bits = 1 Byte
How many bytes are in 1 Kilobyte?
1024 Bytes = 1 Kilobyte
How many Kilobytes are in a Megabyte?
1024 Kilobytes = 1 Megabyte
How many Megabytes in a Gigabyte?
1024 Megabytes = 1 Gigabyte
How many Gigabytes in a Terabyte?
1024 Gigabytes = 1 Terabyte
How many Terabytes in an Petabyte?
1024 Terabytes= 1 Petabyte
What is WORD SIZE?
The measure of the *number of bits that are moved after 1 cycle of the processor.*
A processor that is 64 bits can move how many bits of information with one clock cycle?
64 bits
The *power* of a processor is determined by?
Processor speed
Word size
What is a *CISC* computer?
Complex Instruction Set Computing
What is a *RISC* computer?
Reduced Instruction Set Computing
In *1975*, an IBM researcher named ____, discovered that *20% of the instruction code did 80% of the work.*
John Cocke
*John Cocke’s* discovery led to the development of ____ computers?
RISC
What is *Moore’s Law?*
The power of computers doubles every 18 months
The founder of *Intel* Corporation was ________?
Gordon Moore
In *1952*, *John Backus* of IBM developed?
*FORTRAN* – (formula translator)
– Allowed programming without having to rewire the computer.
– Used a compiler
In *1972*, *Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kerningham* developed?
*C – Programming Language*
– allowed source code to be *reused* after being recompiled
There are 2 categories of computer software:
*S*ystem Software
*A*pplication Software
What is System Software?
*Programs to manage the computer’s hardware resources.*
– Windows 95, Windows 8, OS 10, LINUX, etc.
What is Application Software?
*Programs coded to execute the requirements of the end user.*
– Word, Excel, PowerPoint, etc.
Fourth-Generation Programming Languages can be used by less skilled programmers because ______?
– *Made up of software tools instead of languages.*
– *Examples:* PowerBuilder, FrontPage, Visual Basic
What is PBX?
Private Branch Exchange
– “the switchboard.”
What does a PBX do?
– *C*onnects internal phone system to the PSTN. —— *M*akes connections for the internal telephone network
What does BPS measure?
The measure of data that can be transferred by a telecommunications channel.
How is Bandwidth Calculated?
By calculating the difference between the highest and lowest frequencies that can be accepted on a single channel
What are the parts to Communications Processors?
*F*ront-end processor
*C*oncentrator
*C*ontroller
*M*ultiplexer
What does the *Front-End Processor* do?
*Manage:*
– *Communications* for the host computer on the network
– *Errors* (editing, routing, signal errors)
– *Speed and Signal Conversion*
What does the *Concentrator* do?
Gathers and temporarily stores communications from terminals and transmits them in batches to the host computer.
What does the *Controller* do?
Manages communications traffic between the PBX and peripheral devices.
What does the *Multiplexer* do?
Allows *a single communications channel* to carry data transmissions from *many sources at the same time.*
What is a MAC Address?
A series of numbers assigned by the manufacturer to a NIC. —–*Cannot be changed.*
The 3 most common network Topologies are?
*S*tar
*B*us
*R*ing
Describe a *Star* network topology?
All network devices are connected to a hub or switch —- *all processes pass through the hub or switch*
Describe a *BUS* network topology?
All devices are *linked by single circuit*, and all communication is shared. The network can only handle one message at a time.
Describe a *RING* network topology?
It is a *closed communication loop* with all devices connected.
Data is transmitted in a circle, in a single direction
– Token Ring is most popular RING and uses a Peer-to-peer Protocol that places a logical token that is passed between computers. The computer that has the token can transmit.
Token Ring Protocol was developed by?
*IBM in 1985*
– operates at 4 and 16 Mbps
– IEEE standard *802.5*
A network device that receives a data packet from a computer or network device and copies that data packet to all other connected devices, is a definition of what device?
HUB
What is the difference between a Hub and a Switch?
*Switch* – is intelligent enough to check the packets destination and forward it to the right computer/device.
What device works at the network level and uses various protocols to connect networks by assembling bits into packets for forwarding and directing traffic by use of the IP addresses.
*HINT:* There are lots of these devices in the Internet backbone.
Router
IEEE 802.11a,b, g, N protocols establishes standards for what?
WLANs
What is Wi-Fi?
Wireless Fidelity
What is a Spoof Site?
A website that looks similar to a large corporation or bank
– attempt to obtain your login password information
What is IDS?
Intrusion Detection System
What does IDS do?
Hardware and software that *continuously monitors* network traffic for attempts to breach network security
– *Example:* virus software
What are 3 High Speed Transmission Services?
*ISDN* – Integrated Services Digital Network
*DSL* – Digital Subscriber Line
*Broadband*
What are the benefits of Telecommunications?
*Ecommerce* (B2B & B2C)
*Improved communication*
*Increased sales*
*Improved customer service*
What is EDI?
Electronic Data Interchange
What does EDI do?
Standardizes invoicing and purchasing transactions between two organizations.
– critical technology for ecommerce applications
What is IT Infrastructure?
All computer hardware, software, storage devices, communication devices, network technologies, that are shared throughout the organization.
What’s the function of IT Infrastructure?
Forms the base upon which information systems programs can be implemented.
What is TPS?
Transaction Processing Systems
What does TPS do?
Capture information and updates quickly
– *Example:* scanner based POS registers, ATM, and airline reservation applications.
Name of the 2 TPS systems?
*EDP* – Electronic Data Processing systems
*AIS* – Accounting Information Systems
What networking protocol was developed as an alternative to TCP/IP?
*OSI* – Open Systems Interconnect
– developed by the ISO
What is SSH?
*Secure Shell Protocol*
– provides secure network services over an insecure network
What is ATM?
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Describe ATM?
Protocol that uses *small packets* (53 bytes each, faster than TCP/IP), uses *high speed transmission lines* and routers to maximize network efficiency.
– Uses *Start and Stop bits*
Describe Synchronous Protocol?
Transmits data at a *fixed rate agreed by sender and receiver.*
Sends each byte at the rate agreed upon, uses a transmitter clock to time information.
What are Web Services – “Plug and Play Architecture”?
Software delivered via the web, without the need for translations.
What are the 3 Tiers of Web Services Plug & Play Architecture?
*S*tandards & Protocols
*S*ervice Grid
*A*pplication Services
What’s the purpose of Standards & Protocols in web services Plug & Play Architecture?
*Enable seamless communication between applications.*
*XML* – eXtensible Markup Language
*SOAP* – Simple Objects Access Protocol
*WSDL* – Web Services Description Language
*UDDI* – Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration
What’s the purpose of the *Service Grid* in web services Plug & Play Architecture?
*Forms the vital environment necessary to enable the execution of business activities.*
– shared utilities, billing and payment systems and security.
What’s the purpose of the *Application Services* in web services Plug & Play Architecture?
*Business applications like credit card processing and production scheduling.*
What is the *Primary storage* in a computer?
*RAM* – Used to temporarily store program requests and data used to execute those requests.
– *Volatile Memory* – deleted when power is switched off
What is *Secondary storage* in a computer?
*ROM* – Retains data on CD Rom, Tape, Magnetic Disks, etc.
– *Nonvolatile Memory* – Retains the data with power off
What is DBMS?
Database Management System
What does DBMS do?
Software that allows *organizational access* to central data, *manage it* and *operates as the interface* between application programs and data files.
What are the components of a DBMS?
*DDL* – Data Definition Language
*DML* – Data Manipulation Language
*Data Dictionary*
What does the *DDL* do in the DBMS?
Determines individual elements as it appears in the database
What does the *DML* do in the DBMS?
Language (SQL, etc.) used by the end user and programmers to manipulate the data.
What does the *Data Dictionary* do in the DBMS?
*Contains the following information:*
• Logical structure of database
• Schemas, mappings and constraints
• Users of DBMS and their access rights.
• Record types, data item types, and data aggregates in the database.
• Physical database design, such as storage structures, access paths
What is SQL?
*Structured Query Language*
– most well-known DML
– commands can be embedded in application programs written in C or COBOL
Give some examples of SQL Commands?
*SELECT* – gets data from a table
*FROM* – what table to retrieve data from
JOIN – collates data from 2 or more tables
*WHERE* – conditions that need to be met, example: “%A”
ORDER BY – sorts data in the table
CREATE TABLE – creates a new table
ALTER TABLE – alters the table
DROP TABLE – deletes the specified table
CREATE INDEX – creates search key index
UPDATE – change data in a pre-existing table
DELETE – removes data in a table
INSERT INTO – puts new data into a pre-existing table
LIKE – matches a pattern.
What are the SQL Statements used to retrieve data from a table?
*SELECT* – columns from the table where you want to retrieve data
*FROM* – table
*WHERE* – conditions for selection of particular record
Example:
SELECT Customers.FirstName, Customers.LastName, Products.Name
FROM Customers, Products, Orders
WHERE Customer.Cust_ID = Orders.Cust_ID AND Products.Part_No = Orders.Part_No
The SQL Wildcard “*” means what?
ALL Records
The SQL Wildcard “%” means what?
“%” = zero or more characters
What are the 6 types of Modern Databases?
*R*elational DBMS
*H*ierarchical DBMS
*N*etwork DBMS
*O*bjects *O*riented OODBMS
*O*bject *R*elational DBMS
*D*istributed Database
Describe the Relational DBMS?
Data in one table can be related to data in another table
*Data is stored in flat tables (2-dimensional)*
What is *Normalization*?
A process for *eliminating redundant data fields and many-to-many relationships* in the database.
Describe the *Hierarchical DBMS*?
*Tree-like* records structure that is divided into segments – each parent can have many children but *the children can only have one parent*
– *Rarely used*
– *inflexible, cannot accept English like queries, no ad hoc queries*
Describe the *Network DBMS*?
*Many to many* – each parent and each child can have many parents
– *Rarely used*
– *inflexible, cannot accept English like queries, no ad hoc queries*
Describe the *OODBMS*?
Can manage a variety of multimedia components and very useful for *web applications.*
Describe the *Object Relational DBMS*?
*Hybrid* – has elements of OODBMS and Relational DBMS
Describe the *Distributed Database*?
Database is *stored in more than one physical location* (cloning or partitioning)
*Advantages:* Reduce the possibility of data destruction, can operate on cheaper hardware, and serve local users well.
*Disadvantages:* security issues, reliance on telecomm lines
What is *OLAP*?
*Online Analytical Processing*
– describes the *functionality for spectral manipulation and analysis of huge volumes of complex data*
What is a *Data Mart*?
This is a smaller database that is *extracted from a Data Warehouse.*
– contains data that describes *only a segment of the company’s operations*, ie: sales department
What is a *Date Warehouse*?
A *subset database* of current and historical data, with *reporting and query tools* for performing managerial analysis and assessment.
What is *ETL*?
*Extraction, Transformation, Loading* – Process of *cleaning up and moving data into the data warehouse.*
What is *Data Mining*?
*Techniques used to analyze large volumes of data with the purpose of discovering hidden trends, and relationships.* -*Example:* when beer is purchased, so are peanuts.
What are the 3 tools used in Data Mining?
*N*eural networks
*F*uzzy logic
*G*enetic algorithms
What is the *Neural networks* tool in Data Mining?
*Tries to copy the processing functions of a biological brain.* – cannot replace human decision making
What is the *Fuzzy logic* tool in Data Mining?
A *rule-based* intelligent technique that infers knowledge similar to *”if and then rules.”*
What is the *Genetic Algorithms* tool in Data Mining?
Solve problems by *best possible combinations* called *”adaptive computing.”*
What are *Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Systems* (hybrid AI)?
Used in Japan where home appliances are integrated with this technology
What is *Metadata*?
*”data about data”*—- Tells where data is in the data warehouse. —-*Example:* Library catalog, author, title, publication, subject, etc)
What is a *DBA*, and what do they do?
*Database Administrator* – IT specialist who oversees the development, planning, implementation, operation and security of databases, manages all database activities, management and technical skills
Who developed the “Systems Theory?”
Ludwig von Bertalanffy
What did Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s “Systems Theory” state?
*Problems cannot be solved in isolation*, holistic view.
*Interrelated concepts and components*
*Problems are not always wrong, maybe just need improvement*
*Advantages* – Considers the environmental impact and the needs of the subsystem
*Disadvantage* – inability to deal with many variables and the perception that functional integration and harmony are not always possible
Define what a *System* is?
A group of related components that work together in a specific environment to execute the required functions to achieve a goal
Define what a *Sub-System* is?
separate but inter-connected systems creating a complete system
Define what a *Super System* is?
two or more Systems
Define what *System Analysis* means?
in-depth study of a problem
Define what a *Entropy* is?
The *measure of disorder* in a system – any system has a tendency for disorder
*Internal Elements* are what?
Internal environment (data entry)
*External Elements* are what?
Tax law changes
What is *Permeability of Boundary*?
The *rate at which data is permitted to flow from one system to another.*
A *Permeable* boundary results in what type of system?
Open system
A *Impermeable* boundary results in what type of system?
Closed system (no external connection)
What are *Data Flow Diagrams* and what are they used for?
Displays processes, external entities, files, data flows, and control flows – *Used to analyze and design systems.*
What are *Capital Budget Models* and what are they used for?
*Measure cash inflow and outflow *
– *Examples:* Payback Method, (ROI), Cost Benefit Ratio, (NPV), Profitability Index, (IRR)
*Limitation:* only measure tangible benefits
What is a *Portfolio Analysis*?
Comparisons between competing systems to determine *pros and cons.*
What are *Scoring Models*?
Operate on a *ratings system based on goals.*
What is a *Real Pricing Option*?
Bases its evaluation on *options valuations* for uncertain systems projects
What are the *Global Organizational Information Systems*?
– *Domestic Exporter* – centralizes corporate activities in home country
– *Multinational* – concentrates financial management in the home country, production, sales, and distribution, are handled in other countries.
– *Franchiser* – production, creation, and financial resources in the home country – rely on overseas workers to manufacture, market and HR (Starbucks and McDonalds)
– *Transnational* – behaves as though there are no boundaries, no headquarters, operations are globally managed
What are the *Information System Levels*?
*Individual System* – single user software/hardware
*Work group* – group of computers connected & designed to communicate with one another
*Enterprise (EIS)* – Unites information from all the other different systems in to the organization.
*Inter-organizational (IOS)* – allows the flow of information to be automated between 2 or more organizations in order to reach a desired supply-chain management system.
—Enables the development of competitive organizations.
—Supports forecasting client needs and the delivery of products and services.
—Better manage buyer-supplier relationships.
What is *Groupware*?
Software that supplies functionality and services to workgroups.
What is *GDSS*?
*Group Decision Support Systems* – Groupware that assists managers in solving problems because their collaboration should speed up the process
—Shared document control, Scheduling, Project management, Video conferencing, Instant messaging
—Provides functionality for operating a collaborative work environment within an intranet
What is *ERP*?
*Enterprise Resource Planning* – integrated and coordinated with data from all business areas
—Standardized data
—Assists managers in planning
—High cost
—Long implementation
What is an *Inter-Organizational* System?
*System operates outside of the firms boundaries and connects a company to its customers, suppliers and business partners – internet companies only *
• Provides ability to sell products, they do not produce.
• Creates a “Value system or web” – add competitive edge
What is *BPI*?
*Business Process Integration* – interaction between business process and data model.
What is *MSS*?
Management Support System
What is *Collaborative Commerce*?
The cooperative leveraging of digital technology by two or more companies to create, design, develop and manage their products and services
What is *CPFR*?
*Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment*
– forecasting is the toughest element in supply chain management
– companies must work together to prevent the bullwhip effect
*ESS* systems operate on which Systems Level?
A.) Strategic Level
B.) Management Level
C.) Knowledge Level
D.) Operational Level
Strategic Level
*DSS* systems operate on which Systems Level?
A.) Strategic Level
B.) Management Level
C.) Knowledge Level
D.) Operational Level
Management Level
*MIS* systems operate on which Systems Level?
A.) Strategic Level
B.) Management Level
C.) Knowledge Level
D.) Operational Level
Management Level
*KWS* systems operate on which Systems Level?
A.) Strategic Level
B.) Management Level
C.) Knowledge Level
D.) Operational Level
Knowledge Level
*OAS* systems operate on which Systems Level?
A.) Strategic Level
B.) Management Level
C.) Knowledge Level
D.) Operational Level
Knowledge Level
*TPS* systems operate on which Systems Level?
A.) Strategic Level
B.) Management Level
C.) Knowledge Level
D.) Operational Level
Operational Level
*TPS* systems serve which of the following?
A.) Operative Workers
B.) Knowledge/Data Workers
C.) Middle Managers
D.) Senior Managers/Executives
Operative Workers
*DSS* systems serve which of the following?
A.) Operative Workers
B.) Knowledge/Data Workers
C.) Middle Managers
D.) Senior Managers/Executives
Middle Managers
*OAS* systems serve which of the following?
A.) Operative Workers
B.) Knowledge/Data Workers
C.) Middle Managers
D.) Senior Managers/Executives
Knowledge/Data Workers
*ESS* systems serve which of the following?
A.) Operative Workers
B.) Knowledge/Data Workers
C.) Middle Managers
D.) Senior Managers/Executives
Senior Managers/Executives
*KWS* systems serve which of the following?
A.) Operative Workers
B.) Knowledge/Data Workers
C.) Middle Managers
D.) Senior Managers/Executives
Knowledge/Data Workers
*MIS* systems serve which of the following?
A.) Operative Workers
B.) Knowledge/Data Workers
C.) Middle Managers
D.) Senior Managers/Executives
Middle Managers
5 year sales trends, 5 year budgeting, profit planning, personnel planning, are examples of information for which *Type of System?*
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
ESS
Spreadsheets, word processing, document imaging, electronic calendaring, are examples of information for which *Type of System?*
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
OAS
Sales region analysis, production scheduling, cost analysis, profit/pricing analysis, contract cost analysis, are examples of information for which *Type of System?*
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
DSS
Order tracking, machine control, material movement, cash management, payroll, accounts payable/receivables, training, employee records, are examples of information for which *Type of System?*
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
TPS
Graphics workstations, engineering workstations, managerial workstations, are examples of information for which *Type of System?*
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
KWS
Sales management, inventory control, annual budgeting, capital investment analysis, relocation analysis, are examples of information for which *Type of System?*
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
MIS
Which Type of System ties the CEO to all levels, has graphic summary reports designed for the person and requires a lot of support staff to maintain?
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
ESS
Which Type of System deals with high volume data input, summary outputs, and focusses internally on the business managerial level?
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
MIS
Which Type of System deals with low volume data input, can have sophisticated modeling, and in recent years has added artificial intelligence?
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
DSS
Which Type of System are designed to enhance productivity by delivering task specific information?
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
KWS
Which Type of System are designed to improve productivity of the office staff?
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
OAS
Which Type of System is the main source of information input, daily transactions, order processing, airline ticketing?
A.) ESS
B.) MIS
C.) DSS
D.) KWS
E.) OAS
F.) TPS
TPS
What is an *Expert System*?
*”knowledge based system”* – software designed to simulate the problem solving process of human expert and provide a solution.
—Leads you through a series of questions and tries to troubleshoot the problem for you.
What are the *Key Management Systems in a Digital Firm*?
*SCMS* – Supply Chain Management Systems
*CRM* – Customer Relationship Management Systems
*Enterprise Systems*
*KMS* – Knowledge Management Systems
What does the *SCMS* do?
Manages relationship between company and suppliers, forward and backward deliveries
What is the *Bullwhip Effect*?
When information regarding a product demand gets distorted, a ripple effect results in larger than anticipated change in product demand.
What is *SCP* in a SCMS?
*Supply Chain Planning* – allows company to forecast demand, source materials, and plan for the manufacture of the product.
What is *SCE* in a SCMS?
*Supply Chain Execution* – controls efficient flow of products from distribution centers and warehouses to the delivery destinations.
What is *CRM*?
*Customer Relationship Management* – accumulates customer data over 5-10 years to track purchases
What is *KMS*?
*Knowledge Management Systems* – allows organizations to leverage the intangible “knowledge” from prior events to assist with decision making.
• *Training* – Most valuable tool in KMS
What’s the purpose of Management Information Systems?
– *combines the technical and behavioral approaches of IS* to focus on their use in management and business while developing practical solutions that are faced in managing, implementing and using these technologies.
*Knowledge Management* is simply?
Management of a company’s information resources.
What is *Batch Processing*?
Processes are stored and then executed later.
How does *Online Processing* work?
Processes are executed instantly once data is entered.
What is *Distributed* Processing?
Processing workload is spread out across multiple computers.
Program instructions written in a high-level programming language that must be converted into machine language by a compiler in order for the computer to understand and execute the program, is a definition of?
Source Code
*Sun Microsystems* developed what?
JAVA – Can run on ANY OS.
What is a *VPN*?
*Virtual Private Network* – Secure communications channel over the Internet via tunneling.
In *1972, the Department of Defense* developed what widely used protocol?
*TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol* –
—*TCP*, manages the breaking up of a file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that re-assembles the packets into the original file.
—*IP*, handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination.
What is the computer *BIOS*?
*Basic Input Output System*
– Enables the processor to interact with all the input/output devices
—stored in ROM
What is *MICR*?
*Magnetic Ink Character Recognition*
– special magnetic ink typeface that can be read accurately by a computer.
• Developed primarily for banking
What is *Parallel Processing*?
Using *2 or more processors in one computer.* Each processor can work on a separate portion of the same job at the same time.
What is a Workstation?
PC connected to a network
What are *Data Types* the computer deals with?
*Characters* – text
*Boolean* – True/False
*Floating Point Numbers* – decimals
*Integers* – whole numbers
Fully functional software that is *free* to use for an unlimited time is called?
Freeware
Software that is downloaded for free, but is *time limited, or has limited functionality* until the user *purchases* a license is called?
Shareware
A person who tries to gain *unauthorized access* to a computer network is called a?
Hacker
What is the *User Interface*?
The place where humans interact with the computer.
The speed of a T1 Line is?
1.544Mbps
*28 – T1 lines* are combined to make a ____ Line that can reach speeds up to 43Mbps?
T3
What is a *LAN*?
*Local Area Network* – group of computers, printers, scanners, etc., all connected via a medium (usually copper cable but can be fiber optic, or wireless)
*• Covers area less than ½ mile*
What is a *MAN*?
*Metropolitan Area Network* – covers area up to *30 miles.*
• Does *NOT* use PSTN lines.
What is a *WAN*?
*Wide Area Network* – exceeds distance of MAN, and uses PSTN lines.
*• Have been replaced with Internet and VPN’s*
What is *Ethernet Protocol*?
Open peer-to-peer protocol developed by *Xerox.* – Computers check to see if data is being transmitted by other computers before it sends data.
What is an *Extranet*?
An *Intranet* that is expanded beyond the boundaries of an organization to give external users access.
What is a *NIC*?
*Network Interface Card* – a communication controller that is required by a computer to connect to a network.
*• Translates the computer data to the protocol used by the network.*
What is the Database Hierarchy (smallest to largest)?
Bit, Byte, Field, Record, File, Database
True or False? Initially IT was *centralized* within IT Units of a company.
*True* – Computers were large and very few people had them
When did companies began to *decentralize IT resources* and assign them to smaller business units?
1980’s
*When did* companies begin giving IS departments the authority over IT infrastructure, and the business units given authority over the use of the IT resources in their areas?
1990’s
A set of *statements* about the ethical values the business desires to uphold is a?
Corporate Credo
In *1947, The Association for Computing Machinery*, developed *two* codes of ethics. What were they?
– The Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct
– Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice