Management Information Systems Chapter 3 Vocabulary

database
an organized body of related information
data hierarchy
the structure and organization of data, which involves fields, records, and files
database information systems
An information system that uses a database.
sequential access file structure
when working with this type of access file you access data from the beginning of the file to the end of the file.
random access file structure
records can be accessed in any order, regardless of their physical location in storage media
indexed sequential access method
Used to read serially or access direct through an index.
physical view
Deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
logical view
Focuses on how individual users logically access information to meet their own particular business needs
data model
Logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures
hierarchical model
An early database model whose basic concepts and characteristics formed the basis for subsequent database development. This model is based on an upside-down tree structure in which each record is called a segment. The top record is the root segment. Each segment has a 1:M relationship to the segment directly below it.
network model
a health maintenance organization that has multiple provider arrangements, including staff, group, or individual practice association structures
relational model
A model that characterizes therapy as an interactive process between client and therapist in which countertransference provides an important source of information about the client’s character and dynamics.
data dictionary
An analysis model describing the data structures and attributes needed by the system.
primary key
A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
foreign key
A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
normalization
the belief that people with disabilities should be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability
database administrators
Ensures the system operates with adequate performance and offers other technical services
fragmentation
the condition of a file that is broken up and stored in many different locations on a magnetic disk
allocation
the assignment of particular areas of a magnetic disk to particular data or instructions
object-oriented database
A database that stores data in objects, not in tables.
encapsulation
Encapsulation is the process of transferring packets of data which use different communications protocols inside packets which use another protocol.
data warehouse
A subject-oriented, integrated, time-variant, non-updatable collection of data used in support of management decision-making processes
online transaction processing
transaction processing mode in which transactions entered online are immediately processed by the computer.
online analytical processing
the process of quickly conducting complex analysis of data stored in a database typically using graphical software tools
data mart
Contains a subset of data warehouse information
business analytics
sophisticated forms of business data analysis