Management Information Systems Chapter 12

unstructured decisions
Nonroutine decisions in which the decision maker must provide judgement evaluation, and insights into the problem definition; there is no agreed upon procedure for making such decision
structured decisions
decisions that are repetitive, routine, and have a definite procedure for handling them
semistructured decisions
Decisions in which only part of the problem has a clear-cut answer provided by an accepted procedure
intelligence
the first of Simon’s four stages of decision making, when the individual collects information to identify problems occurring in the organization
design
Simon’s second stage of decision making, when the individual conceives of possible alternative solutions to a problem
choice
Simon’s third stage of decision making, when the individual selects among the various solution alternatives
implementation
Simon’s fourth stage of decision-making, when the individual puts the decision into effect and reports on the progress of the solution
classical model of management
Traditional description of management that focused on its formal functions of planning, organizing, coordinating, deciding, and controlling.
behavioral models
descriptions of management based on behavioral scientists’ observations of what managers actually do in their jobs
managerial roles
expectations of the activities that managers should perform in an organization
interpersonal role
Mitzberg’s classification for managerial roles where managers act as figureheads and leaders for the organization
informational roles
Mintzberg’s classification for managerial roles where managers act as the nerve centres of their organizations, receiving and disseminating critical information
decisional roles
Mintzberg’s classification for managerial roles where managers initiate activities, handle disturbances, allocate resources, and negotiate conflicts
data visualization
Technology for helping users see patterns and relationships in large amounts of data by presenting the data in graphical form.
geographic information system (GIS)
system with software that can analyze and display data using digitized maps to enhance planning and decision-making
sensitivity analysis
models that ask “what if” questions repeatedly to determine the impact of changes in one or more factors on the outcomes
pivot table
spreadsheet tool for reorganizing and summarizing two or more dimensions of data in a tabular format
balanced scorecard method
Framework for operationalizing a firms strategic plan by focusing on measurable financial, business process, customer, and learning and growth outcomes of firm performance.
key performance indicators (KPIs)
Measures proposed by senior management for understanding how well the firm is performing along specified dimensions.
business performance management (BPM)
attempts to systematically translate a firm’s strategies (e.g., differentiation, low-cost producer, market share growth, and scope of operation) into operational targets
drill down
The ability to move from summary data to lower and lower levels of detail.
group decision-support systems (GDSS)
An interactive computer-based system to facilitate the solution to unstructured problems by a set of decision makers working
together as a group
Location analytics
Ability to gain insights from the location (geographic) component of data, including location data form mobile phones, output from sensors or scanning devices, and data from maps
Operational intelligence
Business analytics that deliver insight into data, streaming events and business operations
Predictive Analytics
The use of data mining techniques, historical data, and assumptions about future conditions to predict outcomes of events, such as the probability a customer will respond to an offer or purchase a specific product