Management Information Systems (chapter 1 & 2)

application
a computer program designed to support a specific task or business process
business intelligence (BI) systems
computer based support for complex, nonroutin decisions, primarily for middle managers and knowledge workers
dashboards
a special form of IS that support all managers of the organization by providing rapid access to timely information and direct access to structured information in the form of reports
data items
things, events, activities, and transactions that are recorded, classified, and stored, but, not organized to make a meaning
database
a collection of related files to tables containing data
e-commerce systems
inter organizational system that enables transactions, B2B and B2C
enterprise resource planning systems (ERP)
correct a lack of communication among the functional area ISs by tightly integrating the functional area ISs via a common database
ergonomics
adapting machines and work environments to people, focuses on creating an environment that is safe, well lit, and comfortable
expert systems (ES)
attempt to duplicate the work of human experts by applying reasoning capabilities, knowledge, and expertise within a specific domain
functional area information syaytems (FAIs)
ISs that support a particular area within the organization
hardware
a device such as a processor, monitor, keyboard, or printer. Together these devices accept, process, and display data and information
information
data that have been organized so that they ave meaning and value to the recipient
information system (IS)
collects, processes, stores, analyses, and disseminates information for a specific purpose
information technology (IT)
relates to any computer-based tool that people use to work with information that supposer the information and information-processing needs of an organization
information technology components
hardware, software, databases, and networks
information technology infrastructure
IT components plus IT services
information technology platform
formed by the IT components of hardware, software networks (wire and wireless) and databases
information technology services
IT personnel use IT components to perform these IT services: develop information systems, oversee security and risk, and manage data
informed user
a person knowledgeable about information systems and information technology
interorganizational information systems (IOSs)
information systems that connect two or more organizations
knowledge
data and /or information that have been organized and processed to convey understanding, experience, accumulated learning, and expertise as they apply to a current problem or activity
knowledge workers
professional employees such as financial and marketing analysts, engineers, lawyers, and accountants, who are experts in a particular subject area and create information and knowledge, which they integrate into the business
netowork
a connecting system (wireline or wireless) that permits different computers to share resources
pricedures
the set of instructions for combining hardware, software, database, and network components in order to process information and generate the desired output
software
a program or collection of programs that enable the hardware to process data
supply chain
the flow of materials, information, money, and serves from the suppliers of raw materials through factories and warehouses to the end customers
transaction processing systems (TPS)
supports the monitoring, collection, storage, and processing of data from the organization’s basic business truncation, each of which generates data
business environment
the combination of social, legal, economic, physical, and political factors in which businesses conduct their operations
business-information technology alignment
the tight integration of the IT function with the strategy, mission and goals of the organization
business process
a collections of related activities that produce a product or a service of value to the organization, its business partners and or its customers
business process management (BPM)
a management technique that includes methods and tools to support the design, analysis, implementation, management, and optimization of business processes
business process reengineering (BPR)
a radical redesign of a business process that improves its efficiency and effectiveness, often by beginning with a clean sheet
competitive advantage
an advantage over competitors in some measure such as cost, quality, or speed; leads to control of a market and to larger than average profits
competitive forces model
a business framework devised by Michael Porter that analyzes competitiveness by recognizing five major forces that could endanger a companies’ position
cross-functional business process
a process in which no single fictional area is responsible for its completion; multiple functional area is responsible for its completion; multiple functional area collaborate to perform the function
digital divide
the gap between those who have access to information and communication technology and those who do not
entry barrier
product or service feature that customers expect from organizations in a certain industry; an organization trying to enter this market must provide this product or service at a minimum to be able tom compete
globalization
the integration and interdependence of economic, social, cultural, and ecological facets of life, enables by rapid advances in information technology
make-to-order
the strategy of producing customized products and services
mass customization
a production process in which items are produced in large quantities but customized to fit the desire of each customer
organizational/individual social responsibility
efforts by organizations to solve various social problems
primary activities
those business activities related to the production and distribution of the firm’s products and services, this creating value
strategic information systems (SISs)
systems that help an organization gain a competitive advantage by supporting its strategic goals and/or increasing performance and productivity
support activistes
do not add value directly to a firms’s producer or derive under consideration but support the primary activities that do add value
value chain model
shows the primary activities that sequentially add value to the profit margin; also shows that support activities
value system
includes the producers, suppliers, distributors, and buyers, all with their value chains