Management Exam 2 HW Questions

When this is one of your beliefs, you assume that all of the people who share one characteristic (such as age or nationality) also share other characteristics (such as ability to learn or trustworthiness)
Stereotype
If an organization has this type of culture, you should anticipate that people will do things a certain way, and you will have to do things that way too
Monoculture
This affected Manuela when she did poorly on her math test. She was aware of a common belief that Hispanic women were not good at math. This assumption affected her math performance
Stereotype Threat
These groups provide support for members of a particular group; for example, McDonald’s has a Women’s Leadership Network that empowers women throughout the organization
Employee Affinity Groups
The Traditional Model of Diversity defines diversity in:
A Narrow Way
For managers, the Traditional Model of Diversity emphasizes:
Creating new opportunities for certain classes of employees, especially those protected by law
“Why don’t women have the mechanical skills to take care of their own cars” is a form of what kind of bias?
Stereotyping
“I am from Japan where all guns are banned and our crime rate is among the lowest in the world. Why can’t Americans do what we do” is a form of what kind of bias?
Ethnocentrism
“My boss told me I couldn’t go to the company ski trip because I am too fat” is a form of what kind of bias?
Discrimination
What kind of culture allows companies to expect to have leaders with a broader understanding of the business environment?
A Pluralistic Culture
If your coworker put nude images of men up on her desk and didn’t take them down even when your manager asked her to, what kind of charges could she face?
Hostile Work Environment charges
“Be my valentine or spend some time in the unemployment line” is an example of what kind of sexual harassment?
Quid Pro Quo
What are the natural talents reinforced through learning and practice that the best leaders use?
Strengths
This type of leadership, often exhibited by women, is a consensual and collaborative process:
Interactive Leadership
These are the personality features – including self-confidence, honesty, enthusiasm, desire to lead, and independence – that formed the basis of the earliest attempts to distinguish leaders from non-leaders:
Traits
Also known as the Hersey-Blanchard model, this theory suggests that effective leaders use different approaches depending on the readiness of their followers:
Situational Theory
This type of leader actually changes followers, helping them to achieve more than they thought possible:
Transformational Leader
A follower with this style can be seen as lazy; he or she does nothing beyond what is required and avoids added responsibility:
Passive Follower
This type of power comes from a position, such as the power of a colonel’s rank in the army gives him over a sergeant:
Legitimate Power
Studies done at __________ centered on leadership effectiveness, finding that __________ leaders were the least productive because they focused on schedules and efficiency rather than on goals and people:
University of Michigan; Job-Centered
According to the __________ model, a leader can adopt one of the four leadership styles based on a combination of relationship (concern for people) and task (concern for production) behaviors. The appropriate style depends on the readiness level of the followers. A followers readiness is based off of his or her _______ and _______ to do the work:
Situational;
Ability, Willingness
In the _________ leadership style, the leader shares ideas with subordinates, gives them a chance to participate, and facilitates decision making:
Supporting
The __________ leadership styles work for followers at moderate readiness levels:
Coaching and Supporting
According to Fielder’s Contingency Theory of Leadership, leader behaviors are __________ to change, and ________ leaders perform best in intermediately favorable situations:
Difficult; People-Oriented
Jeffery has 20 years of management experience and can answer any question. Because he is one of the most knowledgeable managers in the company, people naturally follow his advice when making complicated decisions. What kind of power does this show?
Expert
A manager presents a report to a CEO outlining projected sales for a new store location. This is an example of what type of Influence Principal?
Use rational persuasion
On reality shows like SURVIVOR, people win by making agreements with other contestants who support their goals. This is an example of what type of Influence Principal?
Develop Allies
When discussing influence tactics with your managers, you should tell them that:
The best managers use a variety of influence tactics
What do Servant Leaders and Level 5 Executives have in common?
Both types of leaders have humility as a core personal characteristic
This type of reward comes from an outside source:
Extrinsic Reward
According to Herzberg, these factors, such as recognition and opportunity for growth, satisfy employees when they are present, but when they are absent, employees have neutral levels of satisfaction
Motivators
This term refers to a person’s belief that doing well on the job will result in rewards:
P–>O Expectancy
According to this theory, people are motivated by the consequences of their actions:
Reinforcement Theory
This model of motivation suggests that employees are more motivated when they do different things on the job, have a complete piece of work to do, make their own decisions about how to do their work, and receive feedback on the work they have done:
Job Characteristics Model
In order for this to occur, managers must create an environment in which each person can contribute according to his or her own unique skills:
Engagement
As Secretary of State, Hilary Clinton wanted to change the behavior of nations. Her bid for the 2008 presidency was based in part of her desires to lead others. This is an example of a High Need for:
Power
Andrew, your manager, wants everyone to like him, so he brings lunch for everyone on Fridays. This is an example of a High Need for:
Affiliation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Alderfer’s ERG Theory propose similar types of need categories:
TRUE
In McClelland’s Acquired Needs Model, the need for achievement is essentially the same thing as Maslow’s esteem needs:
FALSE
According to the _________ principle in the ________ theory of motivation, when employees cannot meet higher-order needs, they drop back to lower-order needs:
Frustration-Regression; ERG
What refers to information people receive about how well they are doing on reaching a goal?
Feedback
Lyle’s manager just handed him a list of goals for the year. Because Lyle had no say in setting these goals, he isn’t sure that they are the right ones for him, and as a result, he isn’t very motivated in accomplishing them. This shows a problem with:
Goal Acceptance
Vonda is frustrated with her manager, Glenda. Last week when Vonda asked about Glenda’s expectations, Glenda said, “Just do your best.” But Vonda doesn’t know exactly what to do, and as a result, she isn’t very motivated. This shows a problem with:
Goal Specificity
When students create detailed strategies for achieving their goals, they were increasing _______:
Goal Specificity
_________ is a process used to change behaviors, while the term ________ refers to a consequence that causes the behavior to change.
Behavior Modification; Reward
A baker who designs, bakes, and frosts her own cakes is high on this dimension, but the assembly line worker who installs door handles all day is low:
Task Identity
The student who is always eager to learn is high on this dimension, where as the person who is content with fewer challenges in life is probably low:
Growth-Need Strength
Hackman and Oldham’s Job Characteristics Model is similar to the job design strategy of _________.
Job Enforcement
A person with low growth-need strength will be _____ likely to be motivated by increased feedback and autonomy.
LESS
Elena’s work group just completed a difficult task. As a reward, the group’s manager scheduled a group ski trip to celebrate their accomplishments. This is an example of what kind of Compensation Program?
Team-based Compensation
At OhioHealth, managers observed that too many employees were overweight, so they started a new program. Employees who wanted them received pedometers to measure how far they walked each day. Those employees who walked the most got cash rewards of up to $500. This is an example of what kind of Compensation Program?
Lifestyle Awards
Carla just received her annual performance review. Because Carla had the highest productivity of anyone in her department, she will get the largest raise this year. This is an example of what kind of Compensation Program?
Pay for Performance
When the U.S. Department of Defense identifies a department were efficiency has increased over prior years and work quality has remained the same or gotten better, everyone in the department is rewarded based on how much money they have saved the agency. This is an example of what kind of Compensation Program?
Group Sharing
When John, one of the owners of Flight 001, asks his employees what products are selling and what ideas they have, he is increasing:
The power employees have to make their own decisions
What is an advantage of the New Social Contract?
It gives the company more flexibility in handling employees
This type of employee is someone who does work for an organization on a temporary or part-time bases:
Contingent Worker
This is the art of determining how many and what types of future employees will be needed by the organization; the goal is to have to right people in the right place at the right time:
Human Resource Planning
This is a document that contains information about the duties, responsibilities, and outcomes associated with a specific job:
Job Description
This is the process of choosing an employee from a pool of applicants:
Selection
This selection tool has applicants demonstrate how they would do a part of the job for which they are applying:
Work Sample Test
Designed to collect information about the causes of turnover, this interview is typically done when an employee leaves an organization voluntarily:
Exit Interview
In this process, employees are by coworkers, bosses, subordinates, and themselves. The evaluations are combined to give information that can be used to make improvements:
360-Degree Feedback
This technique enables managers to determine what jobs are worth on the open market – it collects information on what other companies are paying for a particular type of work:
Wage and Salary Surveys
The ultimate outcome of Strategic Human Resource Management is to __________.
Improve Business Results
This law requires that employers provide “reasonable accommodations” for people with disabilities:
Americans With Disabilities Act
This law requires that employers allow terminated employees to stay on a group health plan at the expense of the employee for up to 18 months after leaving the company:
Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act
This law allows employees to switch health coverage plans when changing jobs, regardless of preexisting health conditions. It also prohibits group health insurance plans from dropping sick employees:
Health Insurance Portability Accountability Act
What kind of test should you use if you want to determine how intelligent an applicant is?
A Cognitive Abilities Test
Traditional Performance Reviews can lead to _______.
“Grade Inflation”
Errors, such as stereotyping, are _____ likely to occur when managers evaluate employees based on the possession of specific traits and characteristics.
MORE
The Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale Performance Appraisal System tries to improve performance rating systems by forcing managers to:
Rate employees based on their actions, not their traits
A manager who compares sells results with sales goals is using this process to determine what changes to make in future activities or goals:
Organizational Control
In this type of budgeting system, senior managers get information about needed funds from junior managers and staff members:
Bottom-Up Budgeting
This ratio shows how many times a company can pay off its current liabilities with cash or near-cash assets it currently has on hand:
Liquidity Ratio
This form of control relies on disseminating financial information to everyone in the organization, under the assumption that people will do what is best for the company if they know how the company is doing:
Open-Book Management
At first, employees were suspicious of the quality improvement process because quality control employees were seen as outsiders. But with this process, people from quality work directly with line employees and together, they look for ways to improve quality throughout the work process:
Quality Partnering
Also known as “Kaizen,” this concept refers to the idea that quality gets better in small, incremental steps, not big leaps:
Continuous Improvement
The CEO of Kraft compares the sales figures for Oreos in China against the sales figures for Oreos in the U.S., and she concludes that the original Oreo cookie may not work in China. This is an example of what step in the Feedback Control Process:
Compare Performance and Standards
In 1996, hoping to gain a substantial piece of the Chinese cookie market, Kraft Foods introduced the traditional Oreo cookie in China. This is an example of what step in the Feedback Control Process:
Establish Standards
Employee satisfaction is a common ____________ performance measure:
Learning and Growth
The purpose of cascading the balanced score card throughout the organization is:
To help all employees think about, discuss, and implement the corporate strategy
If the owners of a company decide to redecorate an entire location, they will need to create a __________ budget to determine whether the investment is worth the cost.
a Capitol budget
You are the owner Rock Gardens, a small business specializing in oriental gardens. Last week, you found out that the owner of Heavenly Bamboo is looking for a buyer for her business. In order for the deal to go through, you need to compare the owner’s current _______ and liabilities by looking at her ________. But because you also want to see the company’s __________, or net income, for a one-year period, you also ask to see her ____________. Finally, you calculate her _________ to determine whether the business is getting the right level of sales based on the way they use their assets.
Assets; Balance Sheet; Bottom Line; Income Statement; Activity Ratio
What ratio would you use to answer the question, “On what percentage of our company’s assets do we owe money?”
Debt Ratio
What ratio would you use to answer the question, “Can we pay back our creditors with the assets we have on hand?”
Current Ratio
What ratio would you use to answer the question, “Is our company fully using the resources it owns to generate profits?”
Return on Assets Ratio
What ratio would you use to answer the question, “When we contact a potential customer via a cold call, how likely are they to purchase our product?”
Conversion Ratio
This discipline is based on a 5-step methodology referred to as DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control), which provides a structured way for organizations to approach and solve problems. This is an example of which TQM Technique?
Six Sigma
Xerox studied the order fulfillment techniques of L.L. Bean, the Freeport, Maine, mail-order firm, and learned ways to reduce warehouse costs by 10%. This is an example of which TQM Technique?
Benchmarking
At Land Rover, voluntary groups of 4-12 employees met weekly to identify cost savings, improve product quality, and discuss work-related problems. Although the teams were later phased out, their work was, in part, responsible for almost doubling production at Land Rover from 1993 to 1996. This is an example of which TQM Technique?
Quality Circle