Management Chapter 9- Motivation

Theories of Motivation
-Needs
-Process/Cognitive
-Learning
Motivation
Forces, Internal and/or external to a person, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action
-effort/energy
-persistence
-direction
effort/energy
how hard people work
persistence
whether, when faced with roadblocks and obstacles, people keep trying or give up
direction
action is ideally consistent with organization goals
-behaviors a person engages in
-employees know that they SHOULD perform excellent customer service
Intrinsic Motivation
• Behavior for its own sake
• Satisfaction, learning, improving abilities
• Prosocial Motivation
Prosocial Motivation
• Behavior performed to benefit or help others
Extrinsic motivation
• Behavior to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment
Dan Pink TED Talk
• 2 groups try to solve the problem
• One told they are being timed to discover norms
• Other told they will be given money if they are in the top 25%
• The “money” group is 3 minutes slower than the other
• Traditional business leans towards extrinsic motivators • Modern psychology leans towards intrinsic motivators
• In the business setting this revolves around
• Autonomy-thedesiretodirectourownlives
• Mastery-theurgetogetbetter,ordevelopskills
• Purpose-theneedtodowhatwedoforreasonsbiggerthan ourselves
• Microsoft Encarta versus Wikipedia
Needs Theories
• Motivated by opportunity to meet unfulfilled
needs
• Hierarchy of Needs, Two-Factor, and Three-Needs Theories
• People are motivated to obtain outcomes at work to satisfy their needs
• Good managers and leaders facilitate employee need satisfaction
Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
self actualization (realize ones full potential), esteem (feel good about self), belongingness (social interaction), safety (security), Physiological needs (food, water, etc)
-not everyone will be motivated by the same thing
-once a need is met, the motivation is gone
Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)- Motivator-Hygiene theory
• Hygiene factors (Extrinsic) 1. Elements of the job context 2. Sources of job dissatisfaction
• Motivator factors (Intrinsic)
1, Elements of the job content 2. Sources of job satisfaction and motivation
• What are the implications?
• Herzberg says Intrinsic Factors drive motivation, money doesn’t
McClelland’s Needs Theory
• People acquire needs through their life experiences
• Need for Achievement (nAch)- studied the most; personal responsibility, feedback and moderate risk can stroke this need.
• Need for Affiliation (nAff)
• Need for Power (nPower)
• Need for Cognition (nCog) New! • The need to understand and know
Need for achievement
engage in challenging activities, meet and exceed personal goals, and seek excellence
Need for affiliation
desire for warm, filfilling and close interpersonal relationships
need for power
desire to have influence, control, and responsibility, either directly or through social status
Process/Cognitive Theories
-equity, expectancy, and goal setting
• How do people make choices to work hard or not
Choices are based on: Individualpreferences,
Available rewards,
Possible work outcomes
-There are some jobs you might not like to do; depending on the reward (pay); and outcomes
Equity Theory
• Fairness – Outcomes/Inputs
• Are they perceived to be the same from employee to
employee or employees
• People strive to maintain equity in their outcomes to inputs ratio in comparison to others’ outcomes to inputs ratio
• When there’s a feeling of unfairness
• People try to restore a perceived sense of equity
equity
person believes that he works harder than his employee and gets a higher salary
underpayment inequity
person thinks they work harder but get the same/ less amount of outcomes
overpayment equity
person thinks they do the same as another but gets more outcomes
Expectancy Theory
Effort, Performance, Valency
• Easy explanation with three questions:
1? How hard do I have to work to achieve a certain level of performance, and can I actually achieve that level?
2. What reward will performing at that level get me?
3. How attractive is the reward to me, and does it help me achieve my own personal goals?
Expectancy
-between effort and performance
-person’s perception about the extent to which his or her effort will result in a certain level of performance-i can do it if i try
-if high- try hard, perform at a high level
Instrumentality
-between performance and outcomes
-a persons perception about the extent to which performance at a certain level will result in the attainment of outcomes- if i do it there will be an outcome/reward
-if high-high performance leads to specific outcomes
valence
-matches up with outcome
-how desireable each of the outcomes available from a job or organization is to a person
-people desire the outcomes that result from high performance
example of expectancy theory- foul shot
• If I practice my foul shot more, will my foul shooting improve in the game?
• If my foul shooting improves will I have a shot as a team MVP?
• How important is it to me to be team MVP?
example of expectancy theory-grades
• How much do I really want an “A” in math?
• If I get a better grade on tomorrow’s math
test will I get an “A” in math?
• If I spend most of tonight studying, will it improve my grade on tomorrow’s math exam?
Goal-setting theory
• People are motivated by the process of identifying and achieving goals
• Specificity
• Challenge
• Feedback on performance
-SMART Goals
SMART Goals
• Specific
• Measurable
• Ambitious/Achievable • Realistic/Relevant
• Time-specific
Why is the goal-setting theory challenging?
• People will have different levels of motivation versus difficulty
• It can’t be too easy or too hard
-prioritize goals
Goal-setting theory (feedback)
how am i doing?-reward performance must be consistent with the goal (losing 5 pounds? don’t eat a cake)
Learning theories
-Operant Conditioning Theory
-Social Learning Theory
Operant Conditioning theories
• People learn to behave to get or avoid something
• Behavior changes occur when behavior is reinforced, and when behavior is not reinforced or is punished, it will eventually cease.
• Reinforcement strengthens a behavior and increases the likelihood it will be repeated
• Lack of reinforcement weakens a behavior and lessens the likelihood that it will be repeated
• The vast majority of rewards are extrinsic
-positive, negative, reinforcement, punishment, extinction
Positive reinforcement
giving something-bonus
-addition of positive consequence following desired behavior
negative reinforcement
taking away/removing something-removing a negative consequence following a desired behavior
-stop sending harsh email reminders when task is done
reinforcement
desired behaviors- behavior will continue/increase
Positive Punishment
-undesired behaviors
-behavior will weaken or cease
-addition of a negative consequence following an undesired behavior
-work over weekend when u miss deadline
extinction
-no response following certain behaviors
-removing ability to engage in undesirable behavior
-ignore it; not always a good choice
-kevin ignores my phone when it rings in class
negative punishment
removing something desirable following undesired behavior
-kevin takes my phone when it rings in class
Social Learning theory
• People learn new behaviors and become motivated by observing others through vicarious/observational learning
• Occurs when a learner is motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform and be reinforced for doing so
-learning reinforced by self efficiency and self reinforcement
self efficiancy
• A person’s belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully
self-reinforcement
rewarding ones self motivation (I deserve this starbucks after all this studying)
Pay and motivation
-need: pay is used to satisfy many needs
-equity: pay is given in proportion to inputs
-expectancy: pay is an outcome that has high valence for many people
-goal setting: pay is linked to attainment of goals
-learning theory: outcomes (pay) should be contingent on the performance of organizationally functional behaviors
merit pay plan
compensation plan that bases pay on performance
-commission
-piece-rate-pay
-profit sharing
-scanlon
commission
pay based on % they sell
piece rate
pay based on # of units produced
profit sharing
share of org. profits (stock)
scanlon
reduced expenses- you get a cut!!
Bonus vs. raise
bonus= performance
employee stock option: pay based on organizational performance