Management Chapter 7 Vocabulary

Stress/Stress Response
The unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand.
Stressor/Demand
The person or even that triggers the stress response.
Distress/Strain
The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequences that may arise as a result of stressful events.
Homeostasis
A steady state of bodily functioning and equilibrium.
Person-Environment Fit Approach
Emphasizes the idea that confusing and conflicting expectations of a person in a social role create stress for that person.
Psychoanalytic Approach
Two elements of the personality interact to cause stress.
Ego-Ideal
The embodiment of a person’s perfect self.
Self-Image
How a person sees himself or herself, both positively and negatively.
Work Demands
Task, Role, Interpersonal, and Physical
Task Demands
Change, Lack of Control, Career Progress, New Technologies, and Temporal Pressure
Role Demands
Role Conflict (Interrole and Intrarole), Person-Role, and Role Ambiguity
Interpersonal Demands
Emotional Toxins, Sexual Harassment, and Poor Leadership
Physical Demands
Extreme Environments, Strenuous Activities, Hazardous Substances, and Global Travel
Nonwork Demands
Home and Personal
Home Demands
Family Expectations, Child-rearing/day care arrangements, and Parental Care
Personal Demands
Workaholism, Civic and Volunteer work, and Traumatic Events
Workaholism
An imbalanced preoccupation with work at the expense of home and personal life satisfaction.
Emotional Exhaustion
A form of psychological fatigue caused by energy depletion.
Burnout
A psychological response to job stress that Christina Maslach characterizes along three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced perceptions of personal accomplishment.
Participation Problems
A cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover.
Performance Decrement
A cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair.
Compensation Award
An organizational cost resulting from court awards for job distress.
Dysfunctional Turnover
Occurs when an organization loses a valuable employee.
Functional Turnover
Benefits the organization by creating opportunities for new members, new ideas, and fresh approaches.
Weak Organ Hypothesis
Also known as the Achilles’ heel Phenomenon, suggests that a person breaks down at their weakest point.
Type A Behavior Pattern
A complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements.
Personality Hardiness
A personality characterized by commitment, control, and challenge and, hence, resistant to distress.
Transformational Coping
A way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events.
Regressive Coping
Characterized by a passive avoidance of events and decreased interaction with the environment.
Self-Reliance
A healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others.
Counterdependence
An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people.
Overdependence
An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships.
Preventive Stress Management
An organizational philosophy according to which people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain.
Primary Prevention
The stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress.
Secondary Prevention
The stage in preventive stress management designed to alter or modify the individual’s or the organization’s response to a demand or stressor.
Tertiary Prevention
The stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain.
Organizational Context
Organizational Stressors, Stress Responses, and Distress
Organizational Stressors
Task demands, Role demands, Physical demands, and Interpersonal demands
Stress Responses
Individual and Organizational Responses
Distress
Individual: Behavioral, Psychological, and Medical problems
Organizational: Direct and Indirect Costs
Preventive Medicine Context
Health risk factors, Asymptomatic disease, and Symptomatic disease
Workload Low and Self-Determination Low
Passive Job
Workload High and Self-Determination Low
High-Strain Job
Workload Low and Self-Determination High
Low-Strain JOb
Workload High and Self-Determination High
Active Job
Primary Prevention Activities
Are learned optimism, time management, and leisure time activities.
Secondary Prevention Activities
Are physical exercise, relaxation, and diet
Tertiary Prevention Activities
Are opening up and professional help.
Pessimism
An alternative style of thought that focuses on the negative.
Learned Optimism
Begins with identifying pessimistic thoughts and then distracting oneself from these thoughts or disputing them with evidence and alternative thoughts.
Five Dimensions of Positive Organizational Behavior (POB)
Learned optimism, confidence/self-efficacy, hope, subjective, well-being/happiness, and emotional intelligence