The unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faced with any demand.
The person or even that triggers the stress response.
The adverse psychological, physical, behavioral, and organizational consequences that may arise as a result of stressful events.
A steady state of bodily functioning and equilibrium.
Person-Environment Fit Approach
Emphasizes the idea that confusing and conflicting expectations of a person in a social role create stress for that person.
Two elements of the personality interact to cause stress.
The embodiment of a person’s perfect self.
How a person sees himself or herself, both positively and negatively.
Task, Role, Interpersonal, and Physical
Change, Lack of Control, Career Progress, New Technologies, and Temporal Pressure
Role Conflict (Interrole and Intrarole), Person-Role, and Role Ambiguity
Emotional Toxins, Sexual Harassment, and Poor Leadership
Extreme Environments, Strenuous Activities, Hazardous Substances, and Global Travel
Home and Personal
Family Expectations, Child-rearing/day care arrangements, and Parental Care
Workaholism, Civic and Volunteer work, and Traumatic Events
An imbalanced preoccupation with work at the expense of home and personal life satisfaction.
A form of psychological fatigue caused by energy depletion.
A psychological response to job stress that Christina Maslach characterizes along three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced perceptions of personal accomplishment.
A cost associated with absenteeism, tardiness, strikes and work stoppages, and turnover.
A cost resulting from poor quality or low quantity of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair.
An organizational cost resulting from court awards for job distress.
Occurs when an organization loses a valuable employee.
Benefits the organization by creating opportunities for new members, new ideas, and fresh approaches.
Weak Organ Hypothesis
Also known as the Achilles’ heel Phenomenon, suggests that a person breaks down at their weakest point.
Type A Behavior Pattern
A complex of personality and behavioral characteristics, including competitiveness, time urgency, social status insecurity, aggression, hostility, and a quest for achievements.
A personality characterized by commitment, control, and challenge and, hence, resistant to distress.
A way of managing stressful events by changing them into less subjectively stressful events.
Characterized by a passive avoidance of events and decreased interaction with the environment.
A healthy, secure, interdependent pattern of behavior related to how people form and maintain supportive attachments with others.
An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to separation in relationships with other people.
An unhealthy, insecure pattern of behavior that leads to preoccupied attempts to achieve security through relationships.
Preventive Stress Management
An organizational philosophy according to which people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain.
The stage in preventive stress management designed to reduce, modify, or eliminate the demand or stressor causing stress.
The stage in preventive stress management designed to alter or modify the individual’s or the organization’s response to a demand or stressor.
The stage in preventive stress management designed to heal individual or organizational symptoms of distress and strain.
Organizational Stressors, Stress Responses, and Distress
Task demands, Role demands, Physical demands, and Interpersonal demands
Individual and Organizational Responses
Individual: Behavioral, Psychological, and Medical problems
Organizational: Direct and Indirect Costs
Organizational: Direct and Indirect Costs
Preventive Medicine Context
Health risk factors, Asymptomatic disease, and Symptomatic disease
Workload Low and Self-Determination Low
Workload High and Self-Determination Low
Workload Low and Self-Determination High
Workload High and Self-Determination High
Primary Prevention Activities
Are learned optimism, time management, and leisure time activities.
Secondary Prevention Activities
Are physical exercise, relaxation, and diet
Tertiary Prevention Activities
Are opening up and professional help.
An alternative style of thought that focuses on the negative.
Begins with identifying pessimistic thoughts and then distracting oneself from these thoughts or disputing them with evidence and alternative thoughts.
Five Dimensions of Positive Organizational Behavior (POB)
Learned optimism, confidence/self-efficacy, hope, subjective, well-being/happiness, and emotional intelligence