Management chapter 2-5

approaches to management
1. universal 2. operational 3. behavioral 4. systems 5. contingency
administration of all orgs private or public and large or small requires the same rational process
universal process approach
a convenient description of the production-oriented area of management dedicated to improving efficiency, cutting waste, and improving efficiency. (technically oriented)
operational approach
conducts a business or affairs by standards through observation and experiment
scientific management
believes that people deserve to be central focus of org. activity
bahavioral approach
a concerted effort among theorists and practitioners to make managers more sensitive to employee needs (1st half of 20th century)
human relations movement
some employees always productive
Hawthorne studies (1924)
a modern approach to management that attempts to determine the causes of human work behavior and to translate the results into effective management techniques
organizational behavior
a collection of parts operating interdependently
interdisciplinary area of study based on assumption that everything is part of a larger, interdependent arrangement
general systems theory
self sufficient entity
closed system
depends on environment for survival
open system
living, thinking open system. Mental system
organizational learning perspective
systems influenced by feedback. Finds order among random
chaos theory
effort to determine through research which managerial practices are appropriate in specific situations
contingency approach
concept from 1980s that something prevents women and minorities from moving up in the management hierarchy past a certain point
glass ceiling
politicization, increased personal, legal accountability
pressure points
ongoing process of identifying evaluating and responding to relevant and important social, political, and reputation issues potentially impacting the org’s success
issues management
general political responses
reactive, neutral, and proactive
political strategies
1. campaign financing 2. lobbying 3. coalition 4. indirect lobbying
promote cause or view a long with a product or service
advocacy advertising
looks at company operations in entirety to find legal problems
legal audit
study of how scarce resources are used to create wealth and how that wealth is distributed
up and down movement of an economy’s ability to generate wealth
business cycle
all the tools and ideas available for extending the natural, physical, mental reach of human kind
systematic development and practical application of a new idea
innovation process
3-step process of innovation
1. conceptualization 2. working prototype 3. developing production process
time it takes for a new idea to be translated into satisfied demand
innovation lag
a team approach to product design
concurrent engineering
an employee who takes personal responsibility for pushing an innovation
(18th century) competition between small operations. Public interest served by individuals pursuing own economic self interest
classic economic model
systematically iding all parties that might possibly be affected by the company’s performance
stakeholder audit
in long run those with out power in a way that society considers responsible will tend to lose it
iron law of responsibility
deny responsibility while striving to maintain the status quo
reaction strategy
uses legal maneuvering and PR to avoid assuming additional responsibilities
defense strategy
org. must be pressured into assuming additional responsibilities.
accomadation strategy
taking initiative w/ a progressive program that serves as an inspiring role model for the industry
unselfish devotion to interest of others
the realization that business ultimately helps itself by helping to solve societal problems, involves balancing short-run costs and long-run benefits
enlightened self-interest
charitable donation of company resources
corporate philanthropy
study of moral obligation involving distinction between right and wrong
enduring belief that a certain way of behaving is appropriate in all situations
instrumental value
an enduring belief that certain end-state of existence is worth striving for and attaining
terminal value
business ethics specialist who is a full-fledged member of teh board of directors and acts as the board’s social consicence
ethical advocate
pursuit of org objectives in international and intercultural setting
international management
internationalization process
1. licensing 2. exporting 3. local warehouse and selling 4. local assembly and packaging 5. joint ventures 6. direct foreign investments
a global network of productive units with a decentralized authority structure and no distinct national identity
transnational company
ability of an outsider to read individual behavior, group dynamics, and situations in a foreign culture as well as locals do
cultural intelligence (cq)
home-country oriented, simpler, yet ineffective
ethnocentric attitude
leads to a loose confederation of comparatively independent subsidaries rather than to a highly integrated structure
polycentric attitude
world-oriented, duplication of effort by various units
geocentric attitude
study of how orgs behavior and management practices differ across cultures
comparative management
5 leadership styles
1. charismatic 2. team-oriented 3. participative 4. humane- oriented 5. self-protective