Management Chapter 12 Motivation

Motivation
the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal oriented behavior
Extrinsic
satisfaction in the payoff of others; EX: base pay, bonuses, benefits
Intrinsic
natural rewards and satisfaction with performing a task itself; EX: ability to earn new skills, sense of accomplishment
Theory X
assumptions are basically negative; employees inherently dislike work and will attempt to avoid it
Theory Y
assumptions are basically positive; employees can view work as being natural as rest and play
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
claims that intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction
Hygiene Factors
factors that eliminate job dissatisfaction, but don’t motivate
Motivators
factors that increase job satisfaction and motivation
Achievement
people motivated by this prefer to master a task or situation, prefer working on tasks of moderate difficulty, prefer situations where the results are based on effort
Affiliation
people motivated by this prefer to spend time creating and maintaining social relationships, enjoy being a part of groups and have a desire to feel loved and accepted
Power
people motivated by this desire to influence, teach or encourage others; these people enjoy work and place a high value on discipline
Expectancy Theory
argues that a tendency to act in a certain way will be followed by a given outcome and the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual
Equity Theory
focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others
Goal Setting Theory
1. Goals should be specific
2. Goals should be challenging but achievable
3. Goals should be linked to action plans
4. Goals need not to jointly set to be effective
5. Feedback enhances goal attainment
Reinforcement Theory
states that an individual’s behavior is a function of its consequences; suggests behavior with positive consequences tend to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated
Positive Reinforcement
use of positive consequence to encourage desirable behavior
Negative Reinforcement
process of strengthening a behavior by stopping, removing or avoiding something negative
Punishment
Weakening behavior by presenting something negative or withdrawing something positive
Job Design
division of an organization’s work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance
Job Scope
the number of different tasks required in a job and the frequency with which those tasks are repeated
Job Enlargement
the horizontal expansion of a job that occurs as a result of increasing job scope
Job Enrichment
the vertical expansion of a job that occurs as a result of additional planning and evaluation of responsibilities
Job Characteristics Model
a framework for analyzing and designing jobs that identify five primary core job dimensions, their interrelationships, and their impact on outcomes
Five Core Job Dimensions
Skill variety, Task Identity, Task Significance, Autonomy, Feedback