Management Chapter 11 Bateman Snell

Motivation
forces that energize, direct, and sustain a person’s efforts
goal-setting theory
a motivation theory stating that people have conscious goals that energize them and direct their thoughts and behaviors toward a particular end
stretch goals
targets that are particularly demanding, sometimes even thought to be impossible
law of effect
a law formulated by Edward Throndike in 1911 stating that behavior that is followed by positive consequences will likely be repeated
reinforcers
positive consequences that motivate behavior
organizational behavior modification (OB MOD)
the application of reinforcement theory in organizational settings
positive reinforcement
applying a consequence that increases the likelihood of a person repeating the behavior that led to it
negative reinforcement
removing or withholding undesirable consequences
punishment
administering an aversive consequence
extinction
withdrawing or failing to provide a reinforcing consequence
expectancy theory
a theory proposing that people will behave based on their perceived likelihood that their effort will lead to a certain outcome and on how highly they value that outcome
expectancy
employees’ perception of the likelihood that their efforts will enable them to attain their performance goals
outcome
a consequence a person receives for his or her performance
instrumentality
the perceived likelihood that performance will be followed by a particular outcome
valence
the value an outcome holds for the person contemplating it
Maslow’s need hierarchy
a human needs theory postulating that people are motivated to satisfy unmet needs in a specific order
Alderfer’s ERG theory
a human needs theory postulating that people have three basic sets of needs that can operate simultaneously
extrinsic rewards
rewards given to a person by the boss, the company, or some other person
intrinsic reward
reward a worker derives directly from performing the job itself
job rotation
changing from one routine task to another to alleviate boredom
job enlargement
giving people additional tasks at the same time to alleviate boredom
job enrichment
changing a task to make it inherently more rewarding, motivating, and satisfying
two-factors theory
Herzberg’s theory describing two factors affecting people’s work motivation and satisfaction
hygiene factors
characteristics of the workplace, such as company policies, working conditions, pay, and supervision, that can make people dissatisfied
motivators
factors that make a job more motivation, such as additional job responsibilities, opportunities for personal growth and recognition, and feelings of achievement
growth need strength
the degree to which individuals want personal and psychological develpoment
empowerment
the process of sharing power with employees, thereby enhancing their confidence in their ability to perform their jobs and their beliefs that they are influential contributors to the organization
equity theory
a theory stating that people asses how fairly they have been treated according to two key factors: outcomes and inputs
procedural justice
using a fair process in decision making and making sure others know that the process was as fair as possible
quality of work life (QWL) programs
programs designed to create a workplace that enhances employee well-being
psychological contract
A set of perceptions of what employees owe their employers, and what their employers owe them.