Management chapter 11-13 vocabulary

organizational structure
the formal arrangement of jobs in the organization
organizational design
a process involving decisions about such things as work or job specialization, departmentalization, chain of command, span of control, and centralization or decentralization
the right to direct others and give orders
parity principle
the concept that individuals who are given responsibility for a function must be given enough authority to carry out that function
span of management
the scope of supervision or the number to a particular manager.
traditional authority
authority that arises from subordinates’ belief in social order
formal authority theory
the belief that authority originates at the top of an organization and is delegated downward from superiors to subordinates
authority acceptance theory
the belief that a leader’s authority originates at the bottom of the organizational pyramid and is determined by his subordinates’ willingness to comply with it
line authority
formal authority granted by an organization to a supervisor
staff authority
authority resides in those with certain expertise who counsel or assist those with line authority. People who work with accounting department, for example, may have staff authority and advise the department managers on financial matters.
functional authority
authority given to individuals with expertise in specialized areas and limited to particular situations.
a physician who is employed by a hospital.
charismatic authority
authority that stems from the compelling personal characteristics and charisma of a leader
the ability to influence others or act in a certain way
coercive power
power based on fear
reward power
power based on the ability to distribute something of value
referent power
power based on the personal attraction of an individual or the desire of other people to be like that person
extender role
the role of an employee who takes on tasks or projects for a manager who cannot do all the work himself
staff personnel
employees who specialize in specific duties or areas of expertise, but who generally do not make important decisions that affect the organization
line personnel
employees with direct responsibility to ensure goals are achieved through their subordinates. Line personnel may be advised by staff personnel, but line personnel make the decision
line organization
the organization structure built on a straight chain of command from the top of an organization to the bottom
unity of command
the principle that states that each employee has a single immediate supervisor, who in turn is responsible to her immediate superior, and so on along the chain of command
span management
the number of individuals a manager supervises. also, called span of control.
chapter 12
job specialization
breaking down a task into smaller parts and having each part or step of the task performed by a different individual
the process of grouping various activities into natural units by logical arrangements
center of excellence
a department such as cardiology or oncology chosen by healthcare organization to recieve special attention and resources. Centers of excellence are sometimes called “institutes”
traditional structure
the most common form of organizational design, in which hierarchical relationships develop vertically and each employee reports to the one supervisor
matrix organization
an organization structure that adds cross-departmental connections to a traditional vertical organization. These connections may unite departments for special projects or products or services that span several geographic areas. In a matrix organization, employees often report to more than one superior
role theory
the concept that when employees receive inconsistent expectations and little information, they experience role conflict,, which leads to stress, dissatisfaction, and ineffective performance
mechanic organization
an organization whose structure is characterized by high specialization, extensive departmentalization, narrow spans of control, many rigid rules and regulations, a limited information network, and authority vested in a few higher-level executives
organic structure
an organizational structure in which jobs tend to be general; few rules and regulations exist; communication is vertical, diagonal and horizontal; and the organization is highly adaptive and flexible and encourages decentralized decision making by the employees
vertical chart
an organizational chart that shows the different levels of the organization in a step arrangement in the form of a pyramid.
horizontal chart
an organizational chart that reads from left to right, stressing functional relationships more than hierarchical levels
circular chart
an organizational chart that depicts the various levels in concentric circles rotating around the top-level administrator who is at the hub of the wheel
inverted pyramid chart
an organizational chart featuring the chief administrator on the bottom and others farther up. This chart expresses the idea that the superiors support those who report to them
delegation of authority
the act of a superior granting authority on some level to a subordinate
scalar chain
the line of vertical authority relationships from superior to subordinate. also, called chain of command
the process of preparing another individual to take on more authority and responsibility
exception principle
the principle that some decisions faced by an individual are beyond his scope of authority and must be referred to his superior
general supervision
supervision that provides orders in broad terms, with the expectation that the employees will decide how to reach those goals