Management 360. Chapter 5

Nature
Genetics, brain, heredity, physiological
Personality throughout life span
Personality doesn’t change throughout one’s life span
Personality
How people affect others and how they understand and view themselves, as well as their pattern of inner and outer measurable traits and the person-situation interaction
Behavioral scientists now agree that
Genes play a role not only in physical characteristics and the brain, but also in personality
Evolutionary psychologists
Suggesting that humans may be “hardwired” from distant previous generations
Wall Street Journal study
Those with brain damage impairing their ability to experience emotion made better financial decisions that normal players in a simple investment game
Self-concept in personality theory
People’s attempts to understand themselves
High self-esteem
Can be a good thing, but only if it is nurtured and channeled in constructive and ethical ways
All contribute to the human personality
Heredity, the brain, environment, maturation, and learning
Power of heredity
Studies of babies (largely before development takes place)
– Twin studies on relative role of heredity vs. environment (nature vs. nurture)
Socialization process
Role of other relevant persons, groups, and especially, organizations that greatly influence an individual’s personality (not confined to early childhood)
Steps leading to successful organizational socialization
1. Provide a challenging first job
2. Provide relevant training
3. Provide timely and consistent feedback
4. Select a good first supervisor to be in charge of socialization
5. Design a relaxed orientation program
6. Place new recruits in work groups with high morale
Quote about personality by Kluckhohn and Murray
“To some extent, a person’s personality is like all other people’s, like some other people’s, and like no other people’s”
Role of Culture
‘You are what you were when’ model
– ‘The Milennials are coming’
– Family influence
– Birth order
Critical development
10 years is the peak
Power of the Immediate Situation
Fire breaks out, come under fire in combat
Milgram studies “Obedience to Authority”
Tested punishment with electric chair
–High result of people that did highest voltage
Big 5 Personality Traits
1. Agreeableness
2. Conscientiousness
3. Extraversion
4. Emotional Stability
5. Openness to Experience
Agreeableness
Good-natured, cooperative, warm, caring
Conscientiousness
Strongest positive correlation with job performance! (.3)
– dependable, hardworking, responsible
Extraversion
Sociable, outgoing, talkative, assertive
Emotional Stability
Calm, secure, happy, unworried
Openness to Experience
Curious, intellectual, imaginative, artistically sensitive
Real value of the Big Five to Organizational Behavior
It does bring back the importance of predispositional traits, and these traits have been clearly shown to relate to job performance
Myers-Briggs
Four personality traits
1. Introversion/Extraversion
2. Perceiving/Judging
3. Sensing/Intuition
4. Thinking/Feeling
ESTJ
Most managers have this (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging)
Is perception learned?
Yes, perception is learned! (Old lady/young lady picture)
–Exception is newborn visual cliff
Key to understanding perception
It is a unique interpretation of the situation, not an exact recording of it
Sensation vs. Perception
Perception is more complex and much broader than sensation
Subprocesses of Perception
Confrontation, Registration, Interpretation, Feedback, Behavior, Consequence
Authentic Leader
Those who know themselves (are self-aware and true to themselves) and true to others
Stereotype
Perceive another person as belonging to a single class or category
Halo Effect
Perceived on the basis of one trait (Horns effect is when a person is downgraded for a single negative characteristic of incident)
Negative Affectivity (NA)
Reflects a personality disposition to experience negative emotional states (feel nervous, tense, anxious, etc.)
Positive Affectivity
See themselves as pleasurably and effectively engaged, and experience positive attitudes. Tend to perform better
Job Satisfaction
A result of employees’ perception of how well their job provides those things that are viewed as important
3 Dimensions to Job Satisfaction
1. Emotional response to a job situation (can’t be seen, only inferred)
2. Determined by how well outcomes meet or exceed expectations)
3. Represents several related attitudes
5 Job Dimensions to represent the things employers respond to
1. The work itself
2. Pay
3. Promotion Opportunities
4. Supervision
5. Coworkers
Organizational Commitment
Attitude reflecting employees’ loyalty to their organization and is an ongoing process through which organizational participants express their concern for the organization and its continued success and well-being
Organizational Commitment three-component model by Meyer and Allen
1. Affective commitment
2. Continuance commitment
4. Normative commitment
Affective commitment
Employee’s emotional attachment to, identification with, and involvement in the organization
Continuance commitment
Commitment based on the costs that the employee associates with leaving the organization
Normative commitment
Employees’ feelings of obligation to stay with organization because it’s the right thing to do
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCBs)
Individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization (volunteering, helping a coworker, being understanding, etc.)
Big 5 vs. MBTI
Whereas the Big 5 is based on research, the MBTI is based on the historically important Carl Jung theory of personality types and mental processes
Growing evidence of OCBs
OCBs postively relate to individual, group, and organizational performance