Management 3000 chapter 12

Motivation
the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior
Extrinsic reward
payoff, such as money, that a person receives from others for performing a particular task
Intrinsic rewards
satisfaction, such as a feeling of accomplishment that a person receives from performing the particular task itself
Why is motivation important?
1. join your organization
2. stay with it
3. show up for work
4. be engaged
5. do extra
4 major perspectives on motivation
content
process
job design
reinforcement
Content Perspective
need-based perspective, are theories that empathize the needs that motivate people
Needs
physiological or psychological deficiencies that arounse behavior
Hierarchy of needs theory
people are motivated by 5 levels of needs, physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self actualization
Physiological Needs
basic human needs (food, clothing, shelter, comfort with self-preservation
Safety Needs
concerned with physical safety and emotional security
Love Needs
love, friendship, and affection
Self-Actualization Needs
highest level of need. the need to develop one’s fullest potential to become the best one is capable of being
ERG theory
assumes that three basic needs influence behavior–existence relatedness, and growth
E- Existence Needs
desire for physiological and material well-being—Alderfer
R- Relatedness Needs
desire to have meaningful relationships with people who are significant to us
G- Growth Needs
desire to grow as a human being and to use our abilities to their fullest potential
David McClelland
proposed acquired needs theory which states that three needs- achievement, affiliation, and power- are major motives determining people’s behavior in the workplace
Need for achievement
“i need to excel at tasks”
Need for affiliation
“i need close relationships”
Need for power
“i need to control others”
Frederick Herzberg
two-factor theory, which proposed that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors–work satisfaction from motivating factors and dissatisfaction from hygiene factors
Hygiene Factors
such as salary, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, company policy–all of which affect the job context in which people work
Motivating Factors
such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and job advancement–all of which affect the job content or the rewards of the work performance
Process Perspectives
concerned with the thought processes by which people decide how to act
Equity Theory
focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others—J. Stacey Adams. Based on the idea that employees are motivated to see fairness in the rewards
Inputs of equity theory
time, effort, training, experience, intelligence, creativity, seniority, status etc
Outputs of equity theory
praise, benefits, pay, recognition, bonuses, promotion etc
Acquired Needs Theory
the desire to be responsible for other people, to influence their behavior or to control them is the need for power
Victor Vroom
expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated by 2 things: how much the want something, how likely they think they are going to get it
Expectancy
belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance–effort-to-performance expectancy
Instrumentality
expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the outcome desired- performance-to-reward expectancy
Valence
value, the importance a worker assigns to the possible outcome or reward
Goal Setting Theory
Edwin Locke and Gary Latham– suggests that employees can be motivated by goals that are specific and challenging but achievable
Goals should be…
specific
challenging but achievable
linked to action plans
not be set jointly to be effective
feedback enhances goal attainment
Job Design
division of an organization’s work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance
Job Simplification
process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs
Job Enlargement
consists of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation
Job Enrichment
building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work, and advancement
Job Characteristics model
J. Richard Hackman, Greg Oldham
5 job characteristics
skill variety
task identity
task significance
autonomy
feedback
Reinforcement Theory
Edward L Throndike
B F Skinner
attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated
Reinforcement
anything that causes a given behavior to be repeated or inhibited
Positive Reinforcement
use of positive consequences to strengthen a particular behavior
Negative Reinforcement
process of strengthening a behavior by withdrawing something negative
Extinction
weakening of behavior by ignoring it or making sure it is not reinforced
Punishment
process of weakening behavior by presenting something negative or withdrawing something positive
Pay for performance
bases ones pay on their results
Pieve Rate
employees are paid according to how much output they produce
Sales commission
representatives are paid a percentage of the earnings the company made from their sales
Bonuses
cash rewards given to employees who achieve specific performance objectives
Profit Sharing
the distribution to employees of a % of the company’s profits
Gainsharing
distribution of savings or “gains” to groups of employees who reduce costs and increased measurable productivity
Stock Options
certain employees are given the right to buy stock at a future date for a discounted price
Pay for knowledge
ties employee pai to the number of job-relavent skills or academic degrees they earn