man 3025 ch 2

humans are rational creatures who act in their self-interest, particularly concerning financial decisions
classical approaches to management all have one assumption in common:
bereaucracy
type of organizational structure that has a specific hierarchy of authority, a well defined division of labor, clear rules and procedures on behavior and performance, impersonal relationships, and career advancement based on merit
Max Weber
german scholar who created bureaucracy as a way to form an organization that promotes legitimate authority based on individuals qualifications and accomplishment, rather that on who you know.
Frederick W. Taylor
introduced the concept of scientific management in 1911.
motion study
breaks a task down into its fundamental activities
four elements of scientific management
break the task down to its essential components, select works for the job who have the right skill set, effectively train workers, and provide assistance and direction to the employees
Administrative principles
approach to management that was introduced by Henri Fayol in 1916; asserted that management could be taught and stated the manager had five main duties; foresight, command, organization, coordination, control
social relationships and pursued self actualization
Behavioral approaches to management maintained that workers were primarily driven by ____ and ______
Hawthorne Studies
series of research studies led by Elton Mayo conducted in Western Electric Company’s Chicago plant; research concluded that since the group of workers that were being studied were given special attention, they improved their performance.
human relations movement
supported by the Hawthorne studies; 1950s/1960s – emphasized the importance of managers focusing on good human relations in order to increase worker output
Mary Parker Follet
emphasized that organizations are similar to communities – believed that they should be clear lines of communication between managers and their employees so that they could solve problems and reconcile differences
True
Mary Parker Follet belived that employee ownership increases productivity, organizations should be socially responsible, and she also recognized the complex nature and numerous interrelationships of business problems T/F
Chris Argyris
management scholar who endorses a wide variety of job responsibilities for each worker, high worker influence on the working environment, and high employee participation in the decision-making process – wrote the book Personality and Organizations
Douglas McGregor
published The Human Side of Enterprise in 1960 – emphasized the employees’ need for self actualization and the important of social relationships in the workplace.
– two main approaches to management Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X
assumes the average person:
would rather follow than lead, does not like working, is lazy and unmotivated, is very irresponsible
Theory Y
assumes the average person:
is creative, willing to work, since it is a natural human activity (like play or rest), seeks responsibility, and is self-directed
True
McGregor stated that managers who subscribe to either Theory X or Y, will create a self-fulfilling prophecy T/F
Contingency thinking
utilizing different management approaches when the situation calls for it – there is no “one size fits all” solution to every problem
– solutions vary and must be thought about in different ways
Total Quality Management (TQM)
a philosophy that is focused on constant improvement in all aspects of a business: from production processes, to distribution, to customer relationships.
Knowledge management
using information to gain an edfe over the competition by cultivating, refining, and sharing
Peter Senge
wrote the book – The Fifth Disciple – where he identifies five elements that he thinks are essential for a learning organization: systems thinkings, mental models, personal mastery, shared vision, and team learning
systems thinking
aware of how the organization functions
mental models
members abandon the previous ways of thinking
personal mastery
devoted to the process of learning
shared vision
members agree on a vision to pursue
team learning
members are able to align and act together to attain the vision
Evidence-based management (EBM)
use actual scientific data and info on which approaches really work to make management decisions
Scientific method
1. observe and describe the problem or question
2. generate hypothesis
3. create well defined studies to evaluate hypothesis
4. analyze data and draw conclusions
5. choose to accept or reject the hypothesis