Male reproductive

Question Answer
What different about the perineal membranes in female and males? male has only one opening for urethra.
Which muscles are missing from the male perineal pouch? Sphincter urethrovaginalis and compressor urethrae.
How many lobules in a testis? 250, divided by connective tissue septa.
How many seminiferous in each lobule? 3-10
Where are straight tubules located? Mediastinum
What is the anastomosing channel system called? Rete Testis.
Which cells actually make sperm? Peritubular myocells.
What is the tunica vaginalis and what's it derived from? Makes up parietal layer, cavity and visceral layer, derived from extension of abdominal peritoneum from descent of testes.
What's the tunica albuginea? the dense connective tissue capsule containing lobules.
When do the testes descend towards inguinal canal? 7 months gestation.
What does testis drag into scrotum? blood vessels, nerves, ducts, layers of abdominal wall into scrotum.
What is cryptorchidism? undescended testes. increases risk of cancer, infertility – needs to be surgically corrected, preferentially before 18 months of age.
What are the segments of the epididymis? Capus (head), corpus (body), caudal (tail).
What's the role of epididymis? It's surrounded by SM, so can move sperm in ejaculation – storage and maturation of sperm.
What's the route of the vas def? penetrates abdominal wall through inguinal canal, descends lateral wall of pelvic cavity, meets ducts of seminal vesicle to become ejaculatory duct.
What's the role of the vas def? It's a very muscular duct, so transports spermazoa to ejaculatory duct – mediated by sympathetic nervous system.
Where is a vasectomy performed? back, superficial scrotum.
Describe the seminal vesicles: located posterior surface of bladder. Contribute to volume of semen – secretes alkaline, viscous fluid –> neutralisation of acidic female reproductive tract environment.
Describe the prostate: Located inferior to bladder, superior to perineal membrane. Size of a walnut. 3 zones: peripheral, central, transitional. Secreted liquid containing zinc, citric acid, prostaglandins, proteolytic enzymes.
What is benign prostatic hypertrophy? hypertrophy of central prostate, compresses urethra and can eventually block entirely – DRE reveals "bulky" prostate.
How does prostate cancer present? affects entire thickness of prostate, diagnosed by DRE "rock hard" and blood testes (proteins). 70-80% in peripheral zone. Treated by chemotherapy or removal.
Describe bulbourethral glands: pea-shaped, in deep perineal pouch, opens into spongy urethra, mucous type secretion to lubricate urethra – forms pre-ejaculate.
What do you call the skin over the glans penis? prepuce – open anteriorly and attached to glans at the frenulum.
Where are the attachments for the roots of the penis? Perineal membrane and pubic arch.
What are the erectile tissues: 2 corpora cavernosa and a single corpus spongiosum.
What are the differences and similarities between erectile tissue in males and females? both have 2 corpora cavernosa, males – 1 corpus spongiosum, females – 2 bulbs of vestibule.
What nervous system is erection mediated by? Parasymp – relaxes arteries, allows blood to fill into tissue.
Which muscles move blood from root into body of penis and constrict venous drainage? Ischiocavernosus and bulbospongiosus muscles.

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