macro/micro environment

marketing environment
consists of the actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers.
micro environment
consists of the actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers – the company, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors and publics. It includes the market and the industry.
company
part of the micro environment: under the marketing concept, all the divisions must “think consumer” and work in harmony to provide customer value
suppliers
part of the micro environment: important link in the company’s overall customer value delivery system (should be seen as partners)
marketing intermediaries
part of the micro environment: help the company to promote, sell and distribute its goods to final buyers (includes retailers, marketing service agents, financial intermediaries). Concern is the company lets go of control but must have communication to contain brand standards
customers
part of the micro environment: the companies target group
competitors
part of the micro environment: “marketing concept states to be a successful company must provide greater customer value & satisfaction than its competitors” They are opponents but also sometimes potential partners who can co-brand. They also drive the market further
public
part of the micro environment: “a group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on the organizations ability to achieve its objectives” includes 7 types: financial (banks), media (newspapers,websites), government , citizen- action (consumer organizations), local (neighbourhood residents, community), general and internal (workers, managers, volunteers)
macro environment
consists of the larger societal forces that affect the micro-environment such as demographic, economic, natural, technological, political and cultural forces. This is global environment.
demographic forces
part of the macro environment: “demography is the study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation, and other” Special interest: size of population & growth, changes in age structure, composition of a household, immigrants, level of education
economic forces
part of the macro environment: “the economic environment consists of factors that affect consumer purchasing power and spending patterns”. Focus on changes in income, changes in spending
natural forces
part of the macro environment: “the natural environment involves resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities” trends include: shortage of raw materials, increased pollution, increased government intervention
technological forces
part of the macro environment: dramatic changes in the last decade that creates new markets and oppourtunities. These include advances in mobile phones, organ transplants, internet etc.
political forces
part of the macro environment: “the political environment consists of laws, government agencies and pressure groups that influence or limit various organizations and individuals in a given society”
culture forces
part of the macro environment: “the cultural environment is made up of institutions and other forces that affect a society’s basic values, perceptions, preferences and behaviours”
Porters 5 Forces (Structural Analysis)
is a map of the industry which helps identify strengths and weaknesses and form strategies to counter the 5 forces in a market.
Includes: 1. Supplier power 2. Potential extrants 3. Buying power 4. Subsitutes 5. Industry competitors
Entry Barriers
A part of Porters 5 Forces: include economies of sale, product differential, financial issues, access to distribution channels, national politics