Leadership and Management:
While some believe that leadership is a function of management, others think that leadership is more complex than management.
According to Marquis and Huston (2015)
some see management as a function of control while leadership focuses on maximizing work effectiveness.
usually assigned their position and they have a legitimate source of authority simply because of their position.
Expectations are high for managers
because they are expected carry out myriad functions, duties and responsibilities.
In order to achieve organizational goals managers are expected to
manipulate, not only resources, time and the environment, but money and people as well!
the role of management
is that of control, decision making, analysis and achieving results. Unfortunately, this job is made difficult because managers not only have to direct the willing, but also the unwilling—which we can all agree, is difficult.
If managers control, handle and manipulate, what is the role of the leader?
Prominent student leaders point out that leadership is “an art,” and that true leaders strive to motivate, not control, others to reach a common goal.
The leader is the inspiration, the director, leader of the action. The one who has that unique combination of personality and skills that make others want to follow.
Marquis and Huston
leaders inspire and direct. They are in the front of the pack, taking risks, challenging the “same old same old,” way of doing things.
unlike mangers, leaders often
do not have the title “leader.” They are simply elevated to this status based on their behavior.
“What roles do leaders have?”
Leadership roles include being a communicator, innovator, influencer, teacher, counselor, mentor, advocate, and so on (Display 2.1).
Leaders have many more roles than managers
They may be formal or informal leaders.
A good leader focuses on
interpersonal relationships and their goals may differ from those of the organization.
the biggest differences between the leader and the manager
while the manager has to direct the willing AND unwilling, the leader directs only the willing. Isn’t that nice?
ONCE A LEADER ALWAYS A LEADER?
leaders are leaders only as long as there are people who want to follow. Once a leader loses their following, they are no longer a leader.
Zenger and Folkman (2009) identified
“Ten fatal leadership flaws,” that could ultimately result in lost of leadership status. Often, leaders are unaware that they are even exhibiting
“Ten fatal leadership flaws,”
Lack of energy and enthusiasm, Lack of clear vision and direction, Poor judgment, Lack of collaboration, Talking the talk but not walking the walk, Inability to learn from mistakes, Lack of interpersonal skills
Advocate for Scientific Management
According to Taylor “we should teach these workers one best way to accomplish a task. Only then will productivity and profits increase.”, promote based on abilities, output. Workers need to be able to see how they “fit” with the organization and make sure they have common goals. Taylor states “we could do this by paying the workers for their output since we all know they are only motivated by money.” And lastly, managers and workers need to work together—as long as the workers do all the work.
studied large organizations and has determined why some are more productive than others.
supports these rules, regulations and structure for more productive organizations.
The Management Process
The Management Process
identified and introduced the management functions of planning, organization, command, coordination and control.
what is the philosophy of the organization/business? What are its goals, objectives, policies, procedures, etc. This step could parallel with assessment in nursing or the “P” of the Plan, Do, Study, Act. What is their strategic plan? Long range, short-term goals? What is their fiscal health?
We have a plan—now how are we going to carry it out.
Let’s recruit and hire the best. How will we orient them? What about the most effective means of scheduling? Is it 8 hours, 12 hours, a combination? Self scheduling? What will we have in place for socilalization?
Some overlap with staffing but includes (HR responsibilities like motivating, managing conflict, delegating, communicating, collaboration). We may disagree that this is not always an HR function.
We have to make sure we are fiscally responsible, that our employees are ethical in their actions, professional and collegial.
What are the leadership style?
authoritarian, democratic or laissez faire leadership style
Situational or contingency leadership
What some may not be aware of is that the leadership style we use, may actually fluctuate based on the situation and the individuals involved.
The Great Man Theory
failed to address the impact that others or the “situation” had on the leaders abilities.
Mary Parker Follett
believed that the “situation” should determine how an issue was addressed.
early contingency theory
there really is no optimal way to run a unit, a company or organization because the actions taken will depend on the situations that arise.
interactional leadership theories
operate on the premise that our working environments are open systems and we react to them (and all that they encompass—people, energy, information, matter).
an interactional theorist credited with interactional leadership theory said that his theory had some basic assumptions (pg.42)
also an interactionalist, was surprisingly the first to theorize that the relationship between leaders and followers may be impacted by events going on in their “other” roles. Wow! He said that the leader and follower contribute to the relationship and receive something from it—a 2-way process.
Schein Interactional Leadership Theories
People are complex and highly variable, People’s motives change over time. Goals can differ based on the situation, Performance and productivity are impacted by the task, the person’s ability, experience and motivation of one leadership strategy works in every situation
Hollander’s Leadership Exchange
2-way street, Leader (personality, perceptions and abilities), The followers (personality, perceptions and abilities), The situation (group norms, size, density)
Who will get the best results?
Transformational Leadership is the gold standard
major concern is the day-to-day operations of the business.
Must have the skills of Traditional leadership plus (+) transformational characteristics-otherwise, will fail.
Transactional (old school)
Focuses on day-to-day task, is a care taker, uses trade-offs to reach goals, does not identify shared values, examines causes, uses contingency rewards
Transformational (new way)
Identifies common values, Is committed, Inspires others with vision, Has long-term vision, Looks at effects, Empowers others
A word of caution
Someone who is passionate about a cause can lead you over the edge. Passion and confidence should not take the place of reality.
Think long term, Look outside of your unit-organizationally, Have influence that reaches beyond your own group, Place an emphasis on vision, values and motivation, Be politically astute (more on this later), Do not be afraid of change
Twenty-First Century Thinking About Leadership & Management
new concepts have emerged
Strengths-based leadership, Level 5 Leadership, Servant leader, Principal agent theory, Human and social capital theory, Emotional intelligence, Authentic leadership, Quantum leadership. Thought leadership
Serving others is priority #1, Differs from traditional management where organizational goals and needs are #1
paramount Components to Servant Leadership
Trust, mutual respect and feedback
not be the best idea for a leader
Without your people there is no organization, but might not be the top priority
Human and Social Capital Theory
The environment you work in.
Goes beyond “technical” skills. Getting optimal results from relationships with others or how to use emotions to your benefit because that skill is key to developing
Five components of EI
Self-awareness*, Self-regulation, Motivation, Empathy, Social skills
In order to lead you must be true to yourself and your values and act accordingly.
Differs from transformational leadership in that it is the leaders’ principles and values that inspire.
In transformational leadership, the leader is often inspired by
Followers come from the leader. This might be a problem since your followers might now agree
This is a great concept if its your own business
This theory does not apply in the hospital setting
recognized for being creative, innovative and charging forward with promoting his/her ideas.
Being able to convince others to look at something in a new and different way
Example Thought Leadership
Do NOT use in an emergency situation in the hospital setting
When is Thought Leadership used in the hospital setting?
Might be used in a last resort situation.
Change is constant (The workplace is not static)
Wolfe invented what leadership style?
You can work with people more successfully by enlisting their feelings than by convincing their reason. This increases productivity.
Quantum leadership theory
The only theory that attempts to take the “order” out of managing and leading