Leadership and Management Questions

Conflict is all of the above except ______.
a. normative
b. to be avoided at all costs
c. a metaphor for difference
d. often ideological
e. due to intellectual differences
b. to be avoided at all costs
Embedded in the fear of conflict are issues of all of the following except ____.
a. personal security
b. identity
c. safety
d. relational integrity
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
The early identification of conflict is important to help prevent escalation. Many stressors are manifested in particular modes of ______.
a. communication
b. relationships
c. interactions
d. expression of personal emotions
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
The next stage of conflict is seen with _____.
a. verbalizations
b. snide remarks
c. statements of discomfort
d. cynicism
e. negative assessments
f. b, c, and d are true.
g. All of the above are true.
g. All of the above are true.
All of the following are true except _____.
a. Challenges that differences in personalities create need to be addressed.
b. Values must have a voice, and that voice must be honored, respected, and included.
c. All problems can be solved.
d. Challenges that exist in matching demand to available resources need expression if conflict about them is to be allayed.
c. All problems can be solved.
The leader needs to be comfortable with conflict. Factors which are important to this occurring are the following:
a. The leader must be comfortable with self-expression of feelings, personal insights, and challenges to prevailing views and circumstances.
b. The leader needs an environment that is not constraining or controlling or creates structural barriers that make it difficult to express personal feelings.
c. The good leader embraces his or her own feelings regardless of intensity.
d. The leader must assess their level of comfort and self-expression in the presence of conflict or conflict situations.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Creating a context of trust is the essential framework for ____.
a. a place where the employee can share with you all of their problems.
b. a truly safe place where conflict can be dealt with as easily and effectively as any other function, process, or relationship.
c. quicker discovery of mistakes, allowing the proper punishments to be delivered more quickly.
d. None of these is true.
b. a truly safe place where conflict can be dealt with as easily and effectively as any other function, process, or relationship.
The sense of lack of justice comes from what is considered ___.
a. unfair work conditions
b. unfair procedures
c. unfair relationships
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Examples of poor communication in fully sharing personal views, insights, or opinion include all of the following except ___.
a. Staff vocalizes affirmatively.
b. You see people nodding their heads or sitting in silence in response to a statement or question raised.
c. You notice people stop questioning or raising issues because they fear being labeled as not being team players.
a. Staff vocalizes affirmatively.
10. Alienation____.
a. is encouraged by permitting the reflective work of the profession to be sacrificed by unrelenting work expectations.
b. is encouraged when team members are kept busy doing without the opportunity to think about what they’re doing.
c. that flourishes prevents individuals from ever arriving at that unique fellowship and strong sense of professional relationship that is a sign of a committed team.
d. causes members of the team to give up participating.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
11. Five personal barriers that have a dramatic impact on the individual leader’s ability to understand, engage, and manage conflict include ____.
a. willingness to confront conflict
b. uncertainty about the capacity to handle the conflict emotionally and personally
c. recognizing that most people’s attitude toward conflict is a negative one
d. lack of skill
e. lack of exposure and experience
f. previous family conflicts experienced
g. a, b, c, d, and e are true.
h. All of the above are true.
g. a, b, c, d, and e are true.
12. Steps in handling conflict include ___.
a. identifying the problem
b. immediately reporting the problem to hospital administration
c. making sure issues are expressed
d. a and c are true.
d. a and c are true.
The five types of conflicts are ___.
a. relationship conflicts
b. information conflicts
c. interest conflicts
d. organizational conflicts
e. values-based conflicts
f. conflicts with administration
g. a through e are true
h. All of the above are true.
g. a through e are true
14. Values conflicts ______.
a. are the easiest to address in the workplace
b. are difficult to resolve because they relate to who people are
c. are difficult to resolve because they relate to what people believe
d. b and c are true
d. b and c are true
15. Areas to include in the mediation process as relationship issues are explored include all of the following except ___.
a. mutual respect
b. needs versus wants
c. compassion and empathy
d. blaming others.
d. blaming others.
Patient workforce management includes five highly interconnected and interrelated components, which include all of the following except ____.
a. Establishment of a patient care delivery model.
b. Patient needs and nurse interventions identification.
c. Creation of a core staffing schedule to support patient needs.
d. Daily staffing process that is consistent each day.
e. Evaluate value and outcome.
d. Daily staffing process that is consistent each day.
A patient care delivery model ___.
a. is the method or system of organizing and delivering nursing care.
b. includes work delegation and resource utilization.
c. emerges from the organizational mission, vision, values and structures.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Areas of focus necessary to get the work done in healthcare settings include a system that requires ____.
a. clear delineation and assignment of work based on skills.
b. licensure and competence.
c. recruitment and retention of competent caregivers.
d. assurance of value-based outcomes.
e. integration of the work of all caregivers into a whole that meets the needs of patients.
f. All of the above are true.
f. All of the above are true.
The historical usage approach to staffing involves___.
a. looking at usage from the year before.
b. the assumption that all patients are similar in needs.
c. identifying nurse-to-patient ratios based on experiences and perceptions of nurses.
d. use of a patient classification system.
a. looking at usage from the year before.
5. Patient care needs categories include___.
a. cognitive needs.
b. pain and comfort needs.
c. family information and support needs.
d. treatments and interventions.
e. a and c
f. All of the above are true.
f. All of the above are true.
Times and motion studies involve _____.
a. sampling activities at systematic or random intervals.
b. continuous timed observations of a single person during a typical time period or shift of work.
c. asking the individual to log the work performed using a data collection tool with start and stop times of each activity recorded.
d. using time standards developed from past experiences.
b. continuous timed observations of a single person during a typical time period or shift of work.
The expert opinion or expert panel technique to measure work _____.
a. identifies time requirements for certain work.
b. is a consensus approach.
c. uses professional judgment to determine staff required.
d. provides a flexibile approach that focuses on a critical review of nursing practice.
e. a and d
f. All of the above are true.
f. All of the above are true.
8. Validity measures___.
a. the extent to which data is reproducible.
b. the extent to which a workforce management system measures what it is designed to measure.
c. the ability to quantify and/or predict patient needs for nursing care.
d. b and c
e. All of the above are true.
d. b and c
One of the problems with patient classification systems has been low validity. This problem includes the following:
a. failing to account for the full scope of nursing practice.
b. belief that patient classification systems are a vehicle to increase or decrease staffing levels inappropriately.
c. wrongly projecting patient care needs for the next shift or time period.
d. failing to use the data that is generated.
a. failing to account for the full scope of nursing practice.
The problems with prospective versus retrospective prediction of patient care needs includes___.
a. the amount of staff and skill mix has been nearly impossible to determine without an acceptable error range without using a computerized solution.
b. it is nearly impossible to accurately predict patient condition changes, new admissions, and discharges.
c. a and b
d. Neither is true.
c. a and b
The following are important considerations in constructing the basic core schedule:
a. anticipated patient needs volume.
b. shift length.
c. experience.
d. available research evidence for staffing effectiveness.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
All of the following are true about nursing staff skill mix except ____.
a. it consists of the numbers of licensed and nonlicensed staff.
b. it is determined based on who is available to work.
c. it is determined based on the work that needs to be done.
d. it is difficult and challenging to determine due to the multifaceted nature of patients and caregivers.
b. it is determined based on who is available to work.
The role of advanced practice nurse providers and clinical experts includes___.
a. writing orders.
b. providing general patient care oversight.
c. providing care.
d. assisting staff in the care of more complex patients using the latest evidence in a cost-effective approach.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Variance management is____.
a. analysis of the difference between actual hours of staff and required hours of care and then using this information to create effective workload management systems.
b. using multiple indicators to evaluate staffing effectiveness.
c. assisting less-experienced staff in organizing and providing care.
d. eliminating non-value-added work.
a. analysis of the difference between actual hours of staff and required hours of care and then using this information to create effective workload management systems.
Examples of interventions to address the gap between needs and actual staffing are the following ___.
a. reevaluating patient acuity ratings.
b. postponing admissions.
c. postponing nonemergent patient care,
d. floating existing staff to the unit of need.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Autonomy is ___.
a. The right to self-determination
b. the duty to do good
c. a problem that confronts one, with a choice of solutions that seem or are equally unfavorable
d. duty to keep one’s promise
a. The right to self-determination
Ethics is ____.
a. the elimination of arbitrary distinctions and the establishment of a structure of practice with a proper share, balance, or equilibrium among competing claims
b. duty to keep one’s promise
c. the philosophical study of right and wrong action
d. duty to do no harm
c. the philosophical study of right and wrong action
A problem that confronts one, with a choice of solutions that seem or are equally unfavorable is a (n) ___.
a. ethical erosion
b. ethical dilemma
c. ethical fading
d. boundary crossing
b. ethical dilemma
When a health care professional performs favors for a patient that are outside the therapeutic relationship, this is called _____.
a. boundary violation
b. boundary crossing
c. ethical fading
d. whistle-blowing
a. boundary violation
Bioethics is__.
a. the sum total of individual and collective experience, knowledge, and good sense
b. guidelines for behavior specific to a moral framework for professional practice
c. supporting and promoting patients’ healthcare rights and enhancing community health and policy initiatives that focus on the availability, safety, and quality of care
d. a subdiscipline of applied ethics that studies questions surrounding biology, medicine, and the health profession
d. a subdiscipline of applied ethics that studies questions surrounding biology, medicine, and the health profession
Care at the end of life for which there is little hope of benefit is an example of ____.
a. medical futility
b. organizational integrity
c. nonmaleficence
d. rationalization
a. medical futility
An American school of philosophy that rejects the esoteric metaphysics of traditional European academic philosophy in favor of more down-to-earth, concrete questions and answers is ____.
a. morality
b. utilitarianism
c. pragmatism
d. bioethics
c. pragmatism
All of the following are true about the ethics of care moral theory except ____.
a. it is based on the insights of Carol Gilligan
b. it is a process that obscures the ethical dimension of a decision
c. it rejects the traditional male-centered ethics that focused on rationality, individuality, and abstract principles
d. it is based on emotion, caring relationships, and concrete situation
b. it is a process that obscures the ethical dimension of a decision
Examples of resources for ethical decision making would include ____.
a. ethics committees
b. ethics textbooks
c. ethics journals
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Sources of ethical dilemmas include ____.
a. values
b. diversity
c. political views
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Inappropriate communication with patients could involve all of the following ethical issues except ____.
a. autonomy
b. betrayal
c. pragmatism
d. nonmaleficense
c. pragmatism
Legislative issues could impact the following ethical issues ___.
a. boundary violations
b. betrayal
c. code of ethics
d. rationalization
e. a, b, and c
f. a, c, and d
f. a, c, and d
You have just witnessed an incident where a patient could have been harmed by the care of another nurse. The type of ethical dilemma you are facing is a ____.
a. boundary crossing
b. nurse-nurse ethical dilemma
c. whistle-blowing
d. nurse-patient ethical dilemma
b. nurse-nurse ethical dilemma
All of the following are examples situations that could lead to nurse-patient ethical dilemmas except ____.
a. pain management
b. patient restraint
c. patient privacy
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Practice breakdown is ____.
a. disruption or absence of any of the aspects of good practice
b. brief excursions from an established boundary for a therapeutic purpose
c. a process that obscures the ethical dimensions of a decision
d. when a person knows what is right and doesn’t want to do it
a. disruption or absence of any of the aspects of good practice
All of the following are true about evolution of interdisciplinary teams except ____.
a. Digital technology has helped to create the demand for interdisciplinary teams.
b. The complexity-based biopsychosocial model lends itself to health along a continuum, and therefore a role for a wide variety of clinical members.
c. The physician is always the team leader and therefore guides the team.
d. In this increasingly complex health environment no one discipline has all of the information, skills, and resources necessary to address the many intersecting needs of individual patients and patient populations.
c. The physician is always the team leader and therefore guides the team.
Elements essential for viable team construction are___.
a. purpose
b. goals
c. roles
d. relationships
e. activities and functions
f. a, b, and d
g. All of the above are true.
g. All of the above are true.
The purpose for creating teams is all of the following except ___.
a. to provide a general framework for care delivery
b. to advance the capacity of professionals to fully engage particular planning activities
c. to guide problem solving in a way that addresses patient care and improves team effectiveness
d. To make staffing ratios easier to calculate
d. To make staffing ratios easier to calculate
The following is true about goals _____.
a. they give the team clear and specific direction
b. they create a point of reference where teams can evaluate their progress and determine movement toward completion
c. they are generally frowned upon by hospital administration
d. they involve both the team and individual members in defining the performance expectation of the team
e. A, b, and d are correct.
f. All of the above are correct.
e. A, b, and d are correct.
The following is information to be gathered by the team leader prior to assigning roles _____.
a. discerning the character of the work
b. discerning the distribution of the work
c. determining the best way to break down elements of the work into meaningful components.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
The following elements need to be included in the assignment of work ___.
a. individuals charged with responsibility for a particular goal need to be clear about the specifics and the expectations.
b. members working on an activity need to be clear about the time and resources needed to undertake the work.
c. the work timetable is generally not as important as the resource utilization.
d. measures of success must be incorporated into the team member work.
e. A, b, and d are correct.
f. All of the above are correct.
e. A, b, and d are correct.
All of the following are team fables except ____.
a. team members are not always committed to implementing a good team process
b. all team members are created equal
c. team members generally use good critical thinking to resolve their questions and issues
d. team members will set aside their emotional issues in the interest of effective team decision making
a. team members are not always committed to implementing a good team process
Team progress related response strategies that the team leader could initiate within the team process are all of the following except ____.
a. reaffirm specific goals and activities that were identified as essential to the team’s progress toward fulfillment of the purpose of the team
b. place the problem, barrier, or challenge specifically within the context of particular stages or elements of change management.
c. when the context of the issue has been delineated, help break the problem down into smaller issues
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Collaboration ___.
a. is the essential central methodology through which the diverse team stakeholders
work
b. advances the interactions that define the team’s response to patient needs
c. advances the team’s competence in serving their population well
d. implies the capacity to have team members work well together
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Setting the table means ___.
a. knowing how all the decisions need to be served
b. making all of the decisions for the team
c. selecting team members based solely on how well they work together
d. limiting the diversity of the group
a. knowing how all the decisions need to be served
Terms of engagement contain all of the following elements except ____.
a. each member of the team will have an opportunity to speak
b. avoid the use of judgment terms, such as “I agree” or “I disagree”
c. team members should never use “I” statements
d. the use of appreciative strategies in conversation should be encouraged and stimulated
c. team members should never use “I” statements
Major factors that are critical to the effectiveness of the team leader’s role relate specifically to ____.
a. the adequate structuring of the team
b. the type of health care setting
c. the use of good process
d. the progress of the team toward its goals or in fulfillment of its purpose
e. a, c, and d
f. All of the above are true.
e. a, c, and d
The impact of technology on the team process means that ____.
a. communications become available to team members more quickly
b. communication may be more succinct
c. body language and emotions are not available to factor in with electronic communication
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
All of the following are team fables except ____.
a. team members usually do not use good critical thinking to resolve their questions and issues
b. each team member fully understands why they act the way they do
c. people always want to work with others
d. building trust is an important role of the team leader
a. team members usually do not use good critical thinking to resolve their questions and issues
All of the following are true about the team leader and their role except ___.
a. It is the role of the team leader to both monitor and moderate the effect of progress and challenges to an effective team dynamic.
b. The team leader must not be overwhelmed by the seesaw between small successes as they intertwine with moments of challenge.
c. The team’s small successes should be celebrated by members as they progress.
d. The leader should never point out signs of progress until a goal is totally achieved.
d. The leader should never point out signs of progress until a goal is totally achieved.
Major resources in a healthcare organization include ____.
a. fiscal support
b. physical setting
c. supplies
d. technology
e. All of the above.
e. All of the above.
Healthcare economics is ___.
a. a branch of economics focused on efficiency, effectiveness, and behavior in production and consumption of healthcare goods and services.
b. the study and science of how human needs are perceived in relationship to what supply is available.
c. a topic that only managers need to be aware of.
d. a and b
d. a and b
All of the following are true about price except ____.
a. It is based on available dollars and the need for a good or service.
b. Prices are considered from the perspective of actual costs of services.
c. The seller of goods does not determine the price for the goods.
d. Prices are considered from the perspective of overall expenditure of dollars.
c. The seller of goods does not determine the price for the goods.
Supply of healthcare goods and services includes ___.
a. people
b. supplies
c. technology
d. time
f. funds to pay for services
g. All of the above.
g. All of the above.
Material supply levels are impacted by ___.
a. types of services provided
b. available staff
c. access to supplies
d. cost of supplies
e. a, c, and d
f. All of the above
e. a, c, and d
The process of recruiting nurses ___.
a. involves identifying and selecting individuals who closely match the needs of the unit and organization
b. involves defining or anticipating needs for services
c. includes advertising, interviewing, selecting, and hiring
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Insured individuals include ____.
a. those with employer-sponsored health plans
b. older citizens
c. military
d. illegal aliens
e. a, b, and c
e. a, b, and c
The following is not true about material resources ___.
a. Material resources include those resources needed for the environment and supplies and equipment to provide the required patient care.
b. There is significant variation in material resources and continuing demand for new and improved material resources.
c. Material resources comprise a small percentage of the cost of health care.
d. All of the above are true.
c. Material resources comprise a small percentage of the cost of health care.
The following are strategies for assessing one’s time management ___.
a. Determine what your personal abilities are in managing your work across s span of time.
b. Take into consideration both your own personal assessment and the feedback from others on your team.
c. Personal reflection specific to meeting deadlines, feeling stressed or overwhelmed, and managing interruptions are areas that should be considered.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
The following are true about productivity ____.
a. It is a ratio comparing what is produced to what is required to produce it.
b. It is a measure of output from a production process, per unit of input.
c. Aggregate productivity ratios are helpful in determining the overall efficiency of processes and individuals at a macro level.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Examples of productivity metrics include___.
a. registered nurse hours/day
b. admissions, discharges, and transfers/shift
c. new staff orientation hours/ total worked hours
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
A balance sheet is ___.
a. a financial statement that includes assets, liabilities, and equity.
b. a financial statement that includes information about revenue sources and expenses at a specific point in time.
c. a financial report that shows the cash inflow and outflow activities of financial stability of the organization.
a. a financial statement that includes assets, liabilities, and equity.
Cash flow operating activities is ______.
a. a financial statement that includes assets, liabilities, and equity.
b. a financial statement that includes information about revenue sources and expenses at a specific point in time.
c. a financial report that shows the cash inflow and outflow activities of financial stability of the organization.
c. a financial report that shows the cash inflow and outflow activities of financial stability of the organization.
Criteria for assessing and monitoring meaningful measures includes ____.
a. Prioritize consumer and purchaser needs.
b. Focus measurement on areas where there is a potential for improvement in outcome quality.
c. Require that all patients fitting clinical criteria be included in analysis.
d. Measure provider performance at all levels.
e. All of the above is true.
e. All of the above is true.
Dashboards are ___.
a. a combination of graphics and numbers to quickly display important data elements.
b. a discrepancy between needs and resources.
c. financial statements that include information about revenue sources.
d. a way to chart medications given.
a. a combination of graphics and numbers to quickly display important data elements.
Structure in the healthcare system that best supports healthcare leadership is ____.
a. resource-effective
b. timely
c. value-based
d. works to advance the mission and vision of the healthcare system
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Complex adaptive systems theory ____.
a. is grounded in work generating out of biology, mathematics, physics, and complexity science
b. as applied to human behavior is represented in the study of a number of different approaches to understanding the relationship among behavior, organizations, and the larger systems that form the context.
c. Both are true.
d. Neither is true.
c. Both are true.
All of the following fall within the realm of complexity science except ___.
a. behavioral economics
b. linguistics
c. gaming theory
d. nonlinear dynamics
b. linguistics
Of the following statements ____ is true.
a. Optimization in the system is a reflection of the strong goodness of fit between the human organizational dynamics and the technological functional processes that comprise the overall structure of the work environment.
b. Complex thinking that focuses on either social or technical processes increases the predictable.
c. Health care contains little interaction between social and technical forces.
a. Optimization in the system is a reflection of the strong goodness of fit between the human organizational dynamics and the technological functional processes that comprise the overall structure of the work environment.
In complex adaptive systems, power is ____.
a. located in the formal structure.
b. closely-aligned with the point-of-care decision making.
c. Both of the above are true.
d. Neither of the above is true.
b. closely-aligned with the point-of-care decision making.
Individuals at the point of service will need to be ___.
a. more self-directed
b. more collaborative
c. more reliant on management
d. a and b
d. a and b
Significant shifts underway in health care include ___.
a. Tertiary care is slowly being deconstructed.
b. Digital technology is making it possible to create an increasingly portable diagnostic, therapeutic, and interventional environment making it increasingly mobile, fluid, flexible, and portable.
c. Systems compete for value and quality.
d. The fundamental value of practice is no longer embedded in volume measures related to how much an individual has done but in what difference and impact action had.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Critical influences that are creating shifts in health care include all of the following except ___.
a. Change forces are usually just seen on a local level.
b. The financial model now reflects a strong emphasis on value rather than the volume.
c. Focus on healthcare system structures, processes, and evidence is reflected in dynamics that clearly demonstrate impact, effectiveness, and significant measures of the levels of health.
d. Evidentiary dynamics and improvement science now guide mechanisms of advancing practice within the context of a strongly interfaced digital information infrastructure.
a. Change forces are usually just seen on a local level.
All of the following are true about a shift to the health model except ___.
a. The health model requires a network.
b. A preventive health service structure is key.
c. Patients must access services earlier.
d. Patients are seen only when ill.
d. Patients are seen only when ill.
The foundations of shared governance include ___.
a. ownership
b. accountability
c. vertical structures
d. partnership
e. equity
f. a, b, and c
g. a, b, d, and e
g. a, b, d, and e
Reasons why shared governance organizational structure operates effectively in complex adaptive systems like the healthcare environment include ___.
a. The sustainability of healthcare services fully depends on how the point-of-service professionals function individually and collectively.
b. The emergence of knowledge organizations demonstrates that knowledge is not fixed or finite and does not operate simply as a capacity.
c. In a continuum of care approach, no one healthcare organization can own, control, or unilaterally mandate all of the service linkages and connections necessary to fully serve a specific population.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
For complex adaptive systems to thrive, the following principles must operate ___.
a. The whole is never greater than the parts.
b. A problem in one part of the system ultimately affects the whole system.
c. All disciplines serve the user and/or serve someone who serves the user.
d. In complex adaptive systems, form and function interact with each other, otherwise they are not a dependent relationship.
e. a, b, and d
f. b, c, and d
g. All of the above are true.
f. b, c, and d
For a system to be effective the following considerations must be addressed ___.
a. Complex adaptive system providers are integrated in a collaborative and linked relationship that synthesizes well around the needs of the user.
b. The primary driving point of decision making in a complex clinical delivery system is the place where the provider and the user meet.
c. Data must be available at point-of-service to support caregivers in decision making, in clinical activities, and in evaluation of impact and value.
d. a and b
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
All of the following are true about accountability in shared governance except ___.
a. Accountability drives the work of professionals.
b. Accountability is the foundation for all knowledge work performance.
c. Every member of a complex adaptive system has both rights and obligations that generate from the full participation in the life and activities of the system.
d. Every member of the system must fully contribute to the extent of his or her capacity in a way that ensures that the system thrives and fulfills its essential value.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
The role of management in shared governance is ___.
a. stewardship
b. unilateral decision making
c. servant leadership
d. assure seamless interface between the system’s purpose and resources
e. a and c
f. a, c, and d
f. a, c, and d
Nursing is ____.
a. a scientific process founded on a professional body of knowledge.
b. a learned profession based on an understanding of the human condition across the lifespan.
c. an art dedicated to caring for others.
d. a dynamic discipline that increasingly involves more sophisticated knowledge, technologies, and client care activities.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Transition to nursing practice is sometimes difficult because ____.
a. an adequate support system for new graduates may not be in place.
b. subtle hazing may occur to a new employee.
c. new ideas they present are quickly dismissed and discouraged.
d. a and b are true.
e. all of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Settings where nursing opportunities may be found include all of the following except ___.
a. healthcare organizations
b. community centers
c. outpatient settings
d. insurance industry
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
The novice to expert skill acquisition model for nursing was developed by ___.
a. Pat Benner
b. Florence Nightingale
c. Madeline Leininger
d. Dorothea Orem
a. Pat Benner
The underlying reasons for advancing to management and leadership positions are ____.
a. the desire to advance quality practices
b. to advance excellence
c. because of a dislike for the clinical role
d. to introduce new ideas for a better work environment
e. a, b, and d
f. All of the above are true.
e. a, b, and d
Informatics and related technology include ___.
a. researching new medications
b. designing complex documentation and monitoring systems
c. electronic monitoring of patients from remote locations
d. a and b
e. b and c
f. All of the above are true.
e. b and c
Applying for a new position leads to the following changes ___.
a. It changes the individuals you socialize with.
b. It changes your abilities to manage policies and practices.
c. It changes your salary and benefits.
d. It changes your work location.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Maintaining one’s competence as a professional nurse includes ___.
a. role
b. licensure
c. technology
d. completing a graduate degree
e. a, b, and c
f. All of the above is true.
e. a, b, and c
The multistate licensure ___.
a. allows a nurse to have one license in a primary state of residence and be able to practice in other states with multistate statutes.
b. increases the cost of licensure fees when nurses practice in more than one state.
c. is available in 24 states.
d. is available in all states.
e. a and c are true.
f. b and d are true.
e. a and c are true.
Challenges with technology include ____.
a. computer and technology competency
b. identification of the boundaries between employer and personal electronic products
c. use of social media
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
All of the following are examples of elements of a professional nurse portfolio except ____.
a. continuing education records
b. attendance record
c. committee contributions
d. contributions to the community
b. attendance record
Nurses are encouraged to avoid relationships in which individuals are known to have the following characteristics ____.
a. bully and harass others
b. engage in routine gossip
c. be unreliable and need constant reminders to complete work
d. All of the above should be avoided.
d. All of the above should be avoided.
Strategies to enhance personal balance include ____.
a. minimizing negative thoughts
b. specific time for reflection and planning for the future
c. being mindful of self within or after professional practice situations
d. stress management
e. All of the above are helpful.
e. All of the above are helpful.
A coach is ___.
a. a wise and trusted advisor who guides others on a particular journey.
b. one who assists others to develop viable solutions, prioritize them, and then act on them.
c. a unit manager or leader.
d. None of the above.
b. one who assists others to develop viable solutions, prioritize them, and then act on them.
Mentors and coaches address ___ with the mentored nurse.
a. professional role behaviors
b. appearance
c. attitude
d. conflict management
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
The study of healthcare policies includes ___.
a. national or state legislation initiatives and processes
b. organizational policies necessary for order and progress
c. external agencies
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
The Federal Register is ___.
a. a policy that refers to rules that govern the workplace
b. the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of the federal government and an unbiased source of information
c. a document that regulates nursing practice
d. the overarching federal administrative agency concerned with quality healthcare in the United States
b. the official daily publication for rules, proposed rules, and notices of the federal government and an unbiased source of information
Social policy is ___.
a. policy intended to enhance public welfare
b. laws passed by the legislature
c. policies that are authoritative rulings related to those decisions made by government
d. policy directed toward promoting the health of citizens
a. policy intended to enhance public welfare

The provision of tangible recognition of professional achievement in a defined functional or clinical area of nursing is ___.

a. the state nurse practice act

b. nursing certification

c. nursing licensure

d. none of the above

b. nursing certification

Policies that are authoritative rulings relating to those decisions made by government are ___.

a. social policy

b. organizational policy

c. public policy

d. institutional policies

c. public policy

Organizations providing healthcare services are required to have policies specific to ___.

a. provider roles

b. patient care procedures

c. safety practices

d. equipment management

e. staffing and scheduling

f. All of the above.

f. All of the above.

Policies are generated from ___.

a. state legislatures

b. state agencies authorized by legislation

c. state professional associations

d. All of the above.

d. All of the above.

The federal statute enacted in March 2010 that was designed to ensure that all Americans have access to health care is ___.

a. the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

b. the Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health

c. the Transition of Care Program

d. the Patient Self-Determination Act

a. the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

The committee of Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health developed the following key messages ___.

a. Nurses should practice to the full extent of their education and training.

b. Nurses should achieve higher levels of education and training through an improved education system that promotes seamless academic progression.

c. The diploma model for nurses training should be revived.

d. a and b

d. a and b

The law passed in 1996 which focused on the patient’s right to confidentiality and the improvement of the portability and continuity of health insurance coverage is ___.

a. the Good Samaritan Law

b. the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act c. Informed Consent

d. the Patient Self-Determination Act

b. the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

Activities which all nurses should embrace as they become more involved in the profession include ___.

a. becoming competent in the processed of policy development and the differing approaches that are effective at the local, state, and national levels

b. developing focused partnerships with stakeholders who know and understand the evidentiary support for policy making or changing

c. taking a risk and proposing a new policy that is of great personal interest

d. examining a current policy to identify its effectiveness

e. All of the above are true.

e. All of the above are true.

Considerations in being “media ready” include ___.

a. practicing with internal public relations staff

b. avoiding off-the-record comments

c. defining key messages and staying on message

d. All of the above.

d. All of the above.

The agency whose mission is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of health care in the U.S. is ___.

a. the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

b. the Commonwealth Fund

c. the Institute of Medicine

d. the Organization of Nurse Executives

a. the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

The Institute of Medicine is ___.

a. an organization that serves to promote health care that emphasizes access, quality, and greater efficiency, particularly for society’s most vulnerable people

b. a non-profit organization that works outside of government to provide unbiased and authoritative advice to decision makers and the public

c. the U.S. government’s principal agency for protecting the health and well-being of all Americans through the provision of essential human services, especially for those who are most needy

d. None of the above are true.

b. a non-profit organization that works outside of government to provide unbiased and authoritative advice to decision makers and the public

The following is true about the APRN role ___.

a. there is currently no uniform model of regulation across the states

b. each state independently determines the APRN legal scope of practice

c. education, accreditation, certification, and licensure of APRNs needs to be effectively aligned to continue to ensure patient safety

d. All of the above are true.

d. All of the above are true.

Delegation is ___.

a. required whenever there is a hierarchal order of individuals working together to accomplish goals.

b. both a management and a legal concept.

c. discussed in terms of authority, responsibility, and accountability.

d. All of the above are true.

d. All of the above are true.

Autonomy is all of the following except ____.

a. the power to do a job.

b. the right to do a job.

c. embedded in a job description.

d. is identified within the expectation for specific work.

b. the right to do a job.

All of the following are true about accountability except___.

a. It is being answerable for actions or inactions of self or others.

b. It is the obligation to account for or explain the events.

c. There is individual accountability and organizational accountability for delegation.

d. It describes the distribution of work that each staff member is to accomplish in a given period of time.

d. It describes the distribution of work that each staff member is to accomplish in a given period of time.

Critical thinking takes ___ into consideration when deciding what to believe or do.

a. focus

b. reasoning

c. assignments

d. implications

e. a, b, and d

f. All of the above are true.

e. a, b, and d
Decision making ___.
a. is a complex cognitive process.
b. involves choosing a particular course of actions from among alternatives.
c. is an essential component of the problem-solving process.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Supervision ___.
a. is the provision of guidance or direction, evaluation, and follow-up by the delegator for accomplishment of a task delegated to another.
b. is to watch over a particular activity or task being carried out by people and ensure that it is carried out correctly.
c. is the transfer of responsibility for the performance of a selected nursing activity or task from a licensed nurse authorized to perform the activity or task to someone who does not have the authority.
d. a and b
d. a and b
The delegator is responsible for all of the following except ____.
a. accepting only those tasks or assignments for which he or she is qualified.
b. assessment of the situation.
c. ascertaining the competence of the delegate.
d. follow-up supervision.
e. management of results.
a. accepting only those tasks or assignments for which he or she is qualified.
Step one of the basic actions in delegation is assessing the patient or client, the situation, and the appropriateness for delegation. Important considerations within this step are ___.
a. Knowing your personal delegation strengths and weaknesses as well as those of the members of your team.
b. Base decisions on the needs of clients, the stability of client conditions, the complexity of the task, the predictability of the outcome, and the available resources to meet those needs and the judgment of the nurse.
c. Be sure to understand the importance and expectations of the state nurse practice act, practice limitations, and job requirements.
d. All of the above are considerations.
d. All of the above are considerations.
The following is true__.
a. Physicians cannot delegate physician work to nurses.
b. Physicians can delegate physician work to nurses.
c. If the activity or task is not within the nurse’s scope of practice, it can be delegated by the nurse.
d. Delegation is necessary even if the particular activity or task is already within the legally recognized scope of practice of the individual who is to perform the activity or task.
a. Physicians cannot delegate physician work to nurses.
Step three in the delegation process is planning for the work to occur. The following are steps which provide guidelines for preparing with the delegate ____.
a. Clearly identify the work that needs to be done.
b. Clearly identify the importance of requesting assistance when needed.
c. Create a plan for daily feedback between the delegator and delegate specific to delegation principle performance.
d. Discuss strategies to increase effectiveness of delegation and supervision activities, including frequency of supervision and potential for additional delegation.
e. All of the above are steps.
e. All of the above are steps.
The following is not true ___.
a. The nurse is accountable for selection and delegation of tasks to the delegate.
b. The delegator is responsible for the actual work of the delegate.
c. The delegate is fully responsible for his or her work.
d. The delegator is responsible for the process.
b. The delegator is responsible for the actual work of the delegate.
The delegation can be improper if any of the five rights are violated. These include ___.
a. right task
b. right patient
c. right circumstance
d. right directions
e. right supervision
f. All of these are rights.
f. All of these are rights.
Underdelegation is when __.
a. not enough work is delegated.
b. the workload is beyond what the delegate can reasonably do in the assigned time.
c. the delegator is constantly looking over the shoulders of those asked to do the work.
d. any of the five rights are violated.
a. not enough work is delegated.

The following are strategies to support effective delegation ___.

a. Clearly identify the importance of requesting assistance when needed.

b. Gain an understanding of personal delegation competence.

c. Provide feedback on tasks according to the guidelines specified by the delegator.

d. Access evidence-based resources for delegation and supervision.

e. b and d

e. b and d
All of the following are principles of delegation from the ANA or NCSBN website except ___.
a. delegation to competent individuals.
b. care coordination and the use of assistants in providing patient care.
c. ensuring the integrity of the physical plant.
d. the essence of professional responsibility and accountability.
c. ensuring the integrity of the physical plant.
All of the following are true about negotiation except ___.
a. Effective negotiation is a skill one is born with.
b. Negotiation is learned through the process of discipline and application.
c. Much of the skill and talent necessary to negotiate well can be improved through continuous and effective use and refinements of skill development and learning.
d. In all negotiation it is important to be able to develop and utilize good listening skills.
a. Effective negotiation is a skill one is born with.
An essential characteristic of negotiation is ___.
a. Win-lose
b. Win-win
c. Lose-lose
d. None of the above.
a. Win-lose
Core skills that must be developed and refines in order to assure successful negotiation include(s) ___.
a. It is important that the individual can discern, identify, and declare specific goals for which the risk of negotiation is worth undertaking.
b. There must be a certain level of flexibility and fluidity with regard to wants and needs.
c. Good negotiators are well informed, clearly prepared, and understand as much about the matter under negotiation as possible.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
The following are phases of negotiation ___.
a. readying for negotiation
b. establishing the framework for negotiation
c. intensive interaction
d. bargaining
e. closing the interaction
f. a and c
g. All of the above.
g. All of the above.
All of the following are elements of readying for negotiation except ___.
a. understanding the issues at the table
b. determining the personal bottom line
c. understanding the bottom line of each participant
d. practicing the approach to the interaction
e. determining how to defeat the opponent
e. determining how to defeat the opponent
Establishing the framework for the negotiation and the terms of the engagement satisfies the goals of ___.
a. providing a structured and positive environment as the negotiation requires
b. allowing the parties to more clearly establish expectations with regard to the process
c. allowing the parties to operate within the context of fairly formal rules of dialogue
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
The following is a major element of the role of dialogue ___.
a. have limited breaks
b. negative language is acceptable
c. establish rules of speaking without interruption
d. remind the parties of prior failures
c. establish rules of speaking without interruption
The following is true about negotiation sessions ___.
a. each session stands on its own merits and reflects only the activities that occurred within that session
b. subsequent sessions always build on previous sessions
c. early agreements on particular issues of conflict can provide the floor for subsequent clarity and agreement on more difficult issues (called chunking)
d. All of the above were true.
d. All of the above were true.
The leader completely orchestrates and manages ____ associated with the negotiation.
a. the atmosphere
b. the discussions
c. the space
d. the processes
e. a, c, and d
f. All of the above are true.
e. a, c, and d
Nonverbal signs the leader must be able to read include ___.
a. body language
b. gestures
c. eye movements
d. facial expressions
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
The following are included in the guidelines for interaction in negotiation ___.
a. never say “never”
b. make many concessions early in the negotiations
c. do listen carefully to all parties
d. a and c
e. All of the above are true.
d. a and c
Bargaining is ___.
a. the phase of negotiation that emphasizes the give and take related to the variety of positions at the table
b. the work of exchange
c. initiates the serious give and take necessary to determine which legitimate positions emerge and the degree of support for any particular position or view
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
At the closure of negotiations the following should have occurred ___.
a. new positions should be clarified and well-defined
b. trade-offs noted
c. bargaining trades clearly articulated
d. both sides dissatisfied with the results
e. a, b, and c
f. All of the above are true.
e. a, b, and c
Collective bargaining is protected by ___.
a. the Department of Commerce
b. the Nation al Labor Relations Act
c. the Taft-Hartley Act
d. Public Law 93-360
e. a and b
f. b, c, and d
g. All of the above.
f. b, c, and d

Collective bargaining agreements include all of the following except ___.

a. salaries

b. benefits

c. working conditions

d. health care costs

d. health care costs
The obligation for social accountability represents the social contract between the society that licenses the profession and ___.
a. those who practice a profession
b. the persons who act in the best interests of the society
c. employees of a healthcare institution
d. None of the above.
b. the persons who act in the best interests of the society
The debate related to nursing as a profession relates to ___.
a. the predominant level of minimum education of the majority of the profession
b. its dependency role in relationship to other disciplines
c. its lack of clarity with regard to its specific contribution to the health of society
d. an ongoing lack of a disciplined profession
e. a and c
f. All of the above are true.
f. All of the above are true.
Issues related to the development of professionalism in the 20th century include ___.
a. political equity of women
b. changes in women’s role expectations
c. advances in women’s educational opportunities
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Responsibility ___.
a. is embedded in work
b. sees the individual from the perspective of the work
c. assumes some level of intensity of the individual and any investment and ownership of the role, tasks, and activities
d. a and b
e. All of the above are true.
d. a and b
For professionals ____ is the definitive foundation for work.
a. accountability
b. responsibility
c. competence
d. functionalism
a. accountability
Performance evaluations review the worker within the context of the capacity to function and ___.
a. the ability to do the work
b. the ability to get the job done
c. the ability to get along with others who are doing their jobs
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
The following is true —.
a. The relationship between the individual and the workplace unfolds through the lens of job categorization.
b. The job is the contextual framework for the relationship between the individual and the workplace.
c. Creating a job context for work cannot produce professional outcomes.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Leadership must create an organizational context that doesn’t impede membership and ownership of the work. For this to happen, the following circumstances and conditions need to be present: ___.
a. Professional ownership implies that the ownership of the work belongs to the profession, not to the workplace.
b. Contemporary research on the orientation of the professional/knowledge worker suggests that the traditional incentives often seen in employee-driven models do not succeed to motivate the action of this worker.
c. Leaders must on-board new professionals through the use of well-identified professional processes, such as granting privileges instead of hiring, and peer-based selections of incoming members instead of management hiring practices.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Critical elements of professional ownership include ___.
a. The individual nurse values his or her specific gifts, talents, and skills and agrees to commit to the full application of them in undertaking the work of the profession.
b. The individual professional member of the staff recognizes that his or her competence depends on continuous and dynamic lifelong learning.
c. Competency and skill enhancement depends on the individual’s commitment to membership.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
The following is true about teams ___.
a. Teams can’t be constructed simply because people want to meet or work together.
b. Teams are purposeful.
c. Accountable teams are relational bodies.
d. The work of teams is the sum total of its members contributions.
e. a, b, and c
f. All of the above are true.
f. All of the above are true.
Job descriptions ___.
a. have been used historically as a vehicle for delineating role functions, tasks, and activities of the nurse.
b. do not always match the dynamic nature of the work of nursing.
c. are written so that they fit all possibilities in the work environment.
d. a and b
e. All of the above are true.
d. a and b
The primary point of accountability is ___.
a. to be responsible for a stated task.
b. to be able to demonstrate impact and results.
c. to achieve long-term viability.
d. b and c
d. b and c
Value is about ___.
a. doing the right work rather than doing a good job
b. work that is informed by purpose
c. the product of a measured and defined relationship between effective process and meaningful outcome
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Risk is ___.
a. a sign of the continuous and dynamic reach of the human experience in new directions in new ways
b. exploring new territory in a way that advances the human experience and improves it in important ways
c. to be avoided in the healthcare arena
d. present at some level with all meaningful change
e. a, b, and d
f. All of the above are true.
e. a, b, and d
The central characteristics of accountability that are nonnegotiable for the profession represent the following principles ___.
a. Accountability generally reflects the individual professional commitment to performance and to action.
b. Accountability demands a dynamic convergence between ownership, action, impact, and outcome.
c. Individual accountability cannot be sustained if the system structure does not allow it to be legitimately expressed by those who own it.
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
The role of the leader in an era of change is ___.
a. helping the staff to anticipate change
b. translate change into a language that colleagues can understand
c. actively engage in change
d. All of the above are true.
d. All of the above are true.
Healthcare reform involves ___.
a. move from a volume service framework to a value-driven model
b. a change to user-driven healthcare service
c. increasing the use of digital technology
d. decreasing the number of people on Medicare
e. a, b, and c
f. All of the above are true.
e. a, b, and c
The following is true about conflict and conflict management ___.
a. Principles of conflict management are essential to navigating the landscape of transformation and change.
b. Conflict is a normative dynamic.
c. A good conflict process includes identifying conflict in its earliest stages.
d. Conflict resolution and mediation is a learned and developed skill that comes with practice and application.
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Accountability is ___.
a. the cornerstone of professional expression
b. the same as responsibility
c. to be avoided by professionals
d. All of the above are true.
a. the cornerstone of professional expression
Accountability needs ____ for it to be expressed.
a. autonomy
b. responsibility
c. authority
d. competence
e. a, b, and c
f. a, c, and d
f. a, c, and d
All of the following are true about accountability except ___.
a. Accountability can be delegated.
b. Accountability is invested in individuals, not group.
c. Accountability is about the products of work, not the processes of work.
d. Accountability implies change.
a. Accountability can be delegated.
All of the following are essentials that evidence a good fit between supporting infrastructure and the capacity for sustainable professional practice except ___.
a. Professionals organize around decisions, not positions.
b. Decisions are never driven from the point of service.
c. A grid of accountability demonstrates the locus of control for all decisions in the system and clearly identifies where decisions should be made and by whom.
d. Clarification and distinction of decisions that are a priori management driven and owned and those that are staff owned is an important distinction of accountability in professional organizations.
b. Decisions are never driven from the point of service.
Issues that impact ethics in health care include ___.
a. the values of the patient
b. the values of the caregivers
c. errors in the clinical setting
d. moral courage
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
Approaches to staffing decisions include ___.
a. nurse-patient ratios
b. patient classification systems
c. legislative requirements
d. different skill levels
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.
The following is not true about change ___.
a. Learning how to thrive in the presence of continual change requires both art and science in the healthcare environment.
b. All change is urgent.
c. Not all change is value laden.
d. Some good ideas just don’t need to happen unless there is evidence and rationale for the change.
b. All change is urgent.
Policy making takes place ___.
a. at the national level.
b. at the state level
c. at the local level
d. within agencies
e. All of the above is true.
e. All of the above is true.
Nurses should know ___.
a. the source of healthcare policies
b. the content of healthcare policies
c. the consequences of healthcare policies
d. the role of the professional in providing feedback to policy makers when policies are no longer effective
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above is true.
Effective delegation ___.
a. distributes the workload equitably
b. distributes the workload effectively
c. enhances collaboration with other healthcare providers
d. All of the above is true.
d. All of the above is true.
Nursing career management includes all of the following except ___.
a. maintaining a current license
b. maintaining continuing competence
c. participating in professional organizations
d. exploring alternative careers
d. exploring alternative careers
Knowledge workers (professionals) ___.
a. a need a very specific organizational context in order to facilitate good practice and positive outcomes
b. are intrinsically motivated
c. see their work as more than simply a job
d. a and b
e. All of the above are true.
e. All of the above are true.