Kotler, Armstrong, Principles of Marketing, 11th ed, ch 3

Baby boomers
The 78 million people born during the baby boom following World War II and lasting until the early 1960s. (1946-64)
Cultural environment
Institutions and other forces that affect society’s basic values, perceptions, preferences, and behaviors.
Demography
The study of human populations in terms of size, density, location, age, gender, race, occupation, and other statistics.
Economic environment
Factors that affect consumer buying power and spending patterns.
Generation X
The 45 million people born between 1965 and 1976 in the “birth dearth” following the baby boom.
-less materialistic
-they think before buying
Generation Y
Also known as millennials. The 83 million children of the baby boomers, born between 1977 and 2000.
-technology is way of life
Macroenvironment
The larger societal forces that affect the microenvironment—demographic, economic, natural, technological, political, and cultural forces.
Marketing environment
External forces outside of marketing. The actors and forces outside marketing that affect marketing management’s ability to build and maintain successful relationships with target customers.
Marketing intermediaries
Firms that help the company to promote, sell, and distribute its goods to final buyers; they include resellers (walmart, target, costco), physical distribution firms, marketing service agencies, and financial intermediaries.
Microenvironment
The actors close to the company that affect its ability to serve its customers—the company, suppliers, marketing intermediaries, customer markets, competitors, and publics.
Natural environment
Natural resources that are needed as inputs by marketers or that are affected by marketing activities.
Political environment
Laws, government agencies, and pressure groups that influence and limit various organizations and individuals in a given society.
Public
Any group that has an actual or potential interest in or impact on an organization’s ability to achieve its objectives.
Technological environment
Forces that create new technologies, creating new product and market opportunities.
Types of customer markets
Consumer, Business, Reseller, Government, International
Types of economies
industrial, developing, and subsistence
Environmental Trends
-growing shortages of raw materials
-increased pollution
-increased government intervention
three changes in the political environment
-increase in legislation regulating business
-strong government agency enforcement
-greater emphasis on ethics and socially responsible actions