Kinicki & Williams, Principles of Management, Chapter 1-3, test 1

organization
group of people working together to achieve a specific purpose
7 challenges of managers
managing for: 1. competitive advantage 2. diversity 3. globalization 4. information technology 5. ethical standards 6. sustainability 7. personal happiness and goals
how to gain competitive advantage
being responsive to customers, innovation, quality, efficiency
e-business
speeds up decision making, conflict and stress
causes changes in org. structure, jobs, goal setting, and knowledge management
4 principal functions of managers
PLOC: planning, organizing, leading, controlling
planning
set goals and decide how to achieve them
organizing
arrange tasks, people and resources to accomplish work
leading
motivate, direct, and influence people to work hard to achieve org’s goals
controlling
monitor performance, compare to goals, correct things if needed
top managers
long term decisions about direction of org.
establish objectives, policies, and strategies
middle managers
carry out the policies and plans of top managers
supervise and coordinate activities of first-lin managers
first-line managers
short term operating decisions
direct daily tasks of non-managers
functional manager
responsible for only one organizational activity
general manager
responsible for several organizational activities
Mitzberg’s useful findings
1.managers rely more on oral that written communication
2.long hours w/ intense pace
3.work is fragmented, brief, and various
4. 3 types of managerial roles
interpersonal roles and examples
interacting with people in and out of their work unit
figurehead, leader, liaison
figurehead
manager acting as representative of the firm, symbolic
liaison
manager acting as a link between one unit and another
informational roles and examples
receive and communicate info
monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
monitor
collecting info on behalf of organization
disseminator
sharing information with subordinates
spokesperson
speaking on behalf of the organization
decisional roles and examples
us info to make decisions to solve problems or take advantage of opportunities
entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
entrepreneur
establish new things, bring forth fresh ideas, taking risk to make an empire
resource allocator
make decisions about where/what/when to use resources on
negotiators
deal with problems when two parties are at odds with one another, negotiate in order to find compromise
necessity entrepreneurs
forced to start a business in order to make a living
opportunity entrepreneurs
create their business based on a burning desire
technical skills – what level manager needs this most?
job-specific knowledge needed to perform in specialized field – first-line
conceptual skills – what level manager needs this most?
analytical thinking, understanding how the part of the organization work together as a whole – top
human skills – what level manager needs this most?
ability to cooperate with others to get things done – middle
most valued traits in managers
ability to motivate and engage people
ability to communicate
global work experience
high energy
evidence based management
using evidence and research to help in decision making
scientific management
applies the scientific method to place emphasis on increasing productivity or getting more out of people
Frederick Taylor and the Gilbreths
pioneers the scientific management approach
principles of scientific management
1. study each part of task
2.select workers with right abilities
3.train workers and give incentives
4. use principles to plan work method
administrative management
focuses on rules/guidelines for managing a total organization
Fayol & Weber
pioneers of administrative management
bureaucracy
organization that is run by a set of rules to outline how things get done
5 positive Bureaucratic features
1.heirarchy of authority – bosses
2.rules and procedures – everyone follows
3.division of labor – aware of who is in charge of what tasks
4.impersonality – all people w/ same title held to same expectations
5.careers based on merit – promoted based on skills and performance
downside of scientific and administrative management
very mechanistic – people treated/viewed as machines not humans
behavioral viewpoint
recognizes that human have needs, and those needs can be used to motivate employees in the org.
Munsterberg, Follett & Mayo
pioneers of behavioral viewpoint
principles of behavioralism
1. pair people with best jobs for them
2. give people the conditions they need to do best work
3. influence employees to follow management’s wants
4. org’s should be communities
5. manager/worker communication and compromise
6.give workers a sense of control over their work
Hawthorne effect
employees work harder if they are given attention and think their welfare matters to managers
Maslow
1. involved in the behaviorism approach
2. hierarchy of needs
3. lower level needs have to be fulfilled before higher can be achieved
hierarchy of needs in relation to management
managers can provide opportunities, incentives, to help satisfy their needs through their job tasks
McGregor
can up with theory x and y – not actually theory…more like approaches
theory x
assumption that people don’t want to work
theory y
assumption that people do want to work
self-fulfilling prophecy
if you have the idea and assumption that people are going to behave a certain way, they usually conform to that expectation of manager
behavioral science (organizational behavior)
use research, develop theories about behavior that can be practical tools for managers
quantitative viewpoints
application of mathematical techniques to solve management problems
management science
use math models to help decision making/strategy planning
operations management
using math to aid in the decision making about manufacturing
systems approach
reviewing organization as a system and as a collection of system
4 parts of system
inputs, transformational processes, outputs, feedback
open systems vs closed systems
open – interactive w/ its environment
close – limited interaction w/ environment
contingency viewpoint
emphasis on choosing the appropriate managerial approach
quality control
strategize to minimize errors by managing each stage of production
quality
ability of a product/service to totally meet customer needs
Total quality management
TQM- complex, comprehensive process, continuous quality improvement
TQM principles
continuous improvement
get all employees involved
listen/learn from customers and employees
accurate standards to id/eliminate probs
learning organization
actively handles and spreads knowledge within org. and modify behavior to reflect new knowledge
build a learning org
1. commit to learning
2. generate ideas with impact
3. disseminate ideas within org
stakeholders
ppl/groups whose interests are affected by org’s activities
can be internal/external
-have enforceable claim in the org
internal stakeholders
have stake in org and are in org….employees, owners and board
stockholders
the owners of firms who put in the capital
board of directors
oversees managers to make sure the stockholders interests are being acted upon
external stakeholders: 2 types
the task environment and general environment
task environment
customers, competitors, suppliers, distributors, strategic allies, government regulators, special interest groups, unions & associations, local communities, financial institutions, mass media
special interest groups
groups that try to influence specific issues: PETA
general environment
forces/developments that impact all firms –
international forces, economic forces, technological forces, sociocultural forces, demographic forces, political-legal forces
ethical dilemma
decision between beneficial/illegal or unethical options
ethics
standard of right and wrong
values
deeply held personal beliefs and attitudes that influence behavior
4 approaches to ethical dilemma
utilitarian, individual, moral-rights, justice
utilitarian approach to ethics
goal is doing the greatest good for the greatest amount of people/maximize total happiness
individual approach to ethics
goal is the best long term decision for individual – can lead to everyones’ self interest
moral-rights
guided by respect for human rights
justice
guided by respect for impartial standards….everyone equal and everything fair
SOX
established requirements for proper financial record keeping for public companies…penalties defined as well
Kohlberg’s theories
cognitive moral development
level 1 of Kohlberg’s theory
preconventional – follows rules to avoid getting in trouble
level 2 of Kohlberg’s theory
conventional – follows expectations of others…trying to please others
level 3 of Kohlberg’s theory
postconventional – guided by internal values
how to promote ethics(4)
creating strong ethical climate in the workplace
screening prospective employees
have ethic codes and training program-rules that everyone is aware of and obey
reward ethical behavior!
protect whistleblowers
social responsibility
corporations are expected to do more than make a profit, benefit the society as well as org.
4 levels of social responsibility
economic, legal, ethic, philanthropic
2 types of social responsibility
sustainability- green consciousness
philanthropy- charitable giving
corporate governance
-comes from the board of directors
-meant to protect the interests of the owners and stakeholders