key terms Marketing Research #2

Outside Agency
An independent research firm contracted by the company that actually will benefit from the research
-fresh perspective
-more objectivity
-special expertise
-market knowledge)
In-House Research
Research performed by employees of the company that will benefit from the research
-quick turn around
-better collaboration w/ employees
-cheaper costs
-secret process)
Research Suppliers
commercial providers of marketing research services
Syndicated Service
A marketing research supplier that provides standardized information for many clients in return for a fee.
Standardized Research Service
Companies that develop a unique methodology for investigating a business specialty area
EX: retail forward provides location services for retail firms.
Limited Service Research Suppliers
Specialize in particular research activities, such as syndicated service, field interviewing, data warehousing, or data processing.
Custom Research
Projects that are tailored specifically to a clients unique needs
Size of marketing research firm


<100 employees VP of marketing may be in charge of all significant marketing research
100-500 Employees
>500 employees
Cross Functional Teams
Composed of individuals from various functional areas such as engineering, production, finance, and marketing who share a common purpose.
Benefits of Cross Functional Teams
-help organizations focus on a core business process, such as new-product development
-reduce the tendency for employees to focus single mindedly on an isolated functional activity
-help to better communicate customers’ desires and opinions across the firm
Marketing Ethics
The application of morals to behavior related to the exchange environment
Moral Standards
Principles that reflect beliefs about what is ethical and what is unethical
Ethical Dilemma
A situation in which one chooses from alternative courses of actions, each with different ethical implications.
-A term that reflects the degree to which one rejects moral standards in favor of the acceptability of some action
-This way of thinking rejects absolute principles in favor of situation based evaluations
a term that reflects the degree to which one bases ones morality on moral standards
EX: the golden rule
A false experimental effect used to create the perception of true effect
research subjects are fully informed and provided with a chance to ask any questions they may have about the experiment
mystery shoppers
employees of a research firm that are paid to pretend to be actual shoppers
Decision Statement
A written expression of the key question(s) that the research user wishes to answer
Problem Definition
The Process of defining and developing a decision statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, including a set of research objectives
occurs when there is a difference between the current conditions and a more preferable set of conditions
Problem Definition Process Steps
1. Understand the business situation–identify key symptoms
2. Identify key problem(s) from symptoms
3. Write a managerial decision statement and corresponding research objectives
4. Determine the unit of analysis
5. Determine the relevant variables
6. Write research questions and/or research hypotheses
Situation Analysis
involves the gathering of background information to familiarize researchers and managers with the decision making environment
Interview Process
-develop many alternative problem statements
-think about possible solutions to the problem
-make lists
-be open-minded
unit of analysis
indicates what or who should provide the data and at what level of aggregation
research proposal
a written statement of the research design
dummy tables
Tables placed in research proposals that are exact representations of the actual tables that will show results in the final report with the exception that the results are hypothetical (fictitious)
Qualitative Marketing research
research that addresses marketing objectives through techniques that allow the researcher to provide elaborate interpretations of market phenomena without depending on numerical measurement
(its focus is on discovering true inner meanings and new insights)
Researcher Dependent
Researcher must extract meaning from unstructured responses such as text from a recorded interview or a collage representing the meaning of some experience.
QUANTITATIVE Marketing Research
-addresses research objectives through empirical assessments that involve numerical measurement and statistical analysis
QUALITATIVE Marketing Research
-uses small versus large samples
-asks a broad range of questions versus structured questions
-subjective interpretation versus statistical analysis
Major categories of qualitative Research
1. Phenomenology- originating in philosophy and psychology
2. ethnography- originating in anthropology
3. grounded theory- originating in sociology
4. case studies- originating in psychology and in business research
qualitative data
data that are not characterized by numbers but rather are textual, visual, or oral
(stories, visual portrayals etc.)
quantitative data
represent phenomena by assigning numbers in an ordered and meaningful way
idea generation
can generate ideas for new products, advertising copy, promotions, and product improvements
concept testing
a frequently performed type of exploratory research representing many similar research procedures all having the same purpose: to screen new, revised, or repositioned ideas.
-a philosophical approach to studying human experiences based on the idea that human experience itself is inherently subjective and determined in which people live.
-seeks to describe, reflect upon, and interpret experiences
an approach to understanding phenomenology that relies on analysis of texts through which a person tells a story about him or herself.
Hermeneutic Unit
A text passage from a respondent’s story that is linked with a key theme from within the respondents story or provided by the researcher
Represents ways of studying cultures through methods that involve becoming highly active within that culture
An ethnographic research approach where the researcher becomes immersed within the culture that he or she is studying and draws data from his or her observations
Grounded Theory
represents an inductive investigation in which the researcher poses questions about information provided by respondents or taken from historical records (what is happening here? How is it different?)
Case studies
The documented history of a particular person, group, organization, or event
are identified by the frequency with which the same term (or synonym) arises in the narrative description
Focus Group Interview
An unstructured, free flowing interview with a small group (6-10 people) led by a moderator who encourages dialogue among respondents.
Focus Group Moderator
A person who leads a focus group interview and insures that everyone gets a chance to speak and contribute to the discussion.
Depth Interview
A one on one interview between a professional researcher and a research respondent conducted about some relevant business or social topic.
a particular approach to probing asking respondents to compare differences between brands at different levels
an informal qualitative data gathering approach in which the researcher engages a respondent in a discussion of the relevant subject matter
semi structured interviews
written form and ask respondents for short essay responses to specific open ended questions.
free association techniques
-record a respondents first cognitive reactions (top of mind) to some stimulus
-allo researchers to map a respondents thoughts or memory
Thematic perception Test (TAT)
-presents subjects with an ambiguous picture in which consumers and products are the center of attention
-investigator asks the subject to tell what is happneing in the picture now and what might happen next
-picture frustration
projective technique
an indirect means of questioning enabling respondents to project beliefs and feelings onto a third party, and inanimate object, or a task situation.
-particularly useful in studying sensitive issues
discussion guide
incudes written introductory comments informing the group about the focus group purpose and rules and then outlines topics or questions to be addressed in the group session.
marketing managers can watch on television rather than having to take a trip to a focus group facility
streaming media
consist of multimedia content such as audio or video that is made available in real time over the internet or a corporate intranet.
focus blog
a type of informal, “continuous” focus group established as an internet blog for the purpose of collecting qualitative data from participant comments.
secondary data
data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project
Data conversion
the process of changing the original form of the data to a format suitable to achieve the research objective
the comparison of data from one source with data from another source to determine the similarity of independent projects.
-Fact Finding
-model building
-database marketing
Fact Finding
-Identification of consumer behavior for a product category
-Trend analysis
—-market tracking: the observation and analysis of trends in industry volume and brand share over time
-enviornmental scanning
Neural Network
a form of artificial intelligence in which a computer is programmed to mimic the way that human brains process information
Market Basket Analysis
a form of data mining that analyzes anonymous point of sale transaction databases to identify coinciding purchases or relationships between products purchased and other retail shopping information
customer discovery
involves mining data to look for patterns identifying who is likely to be a valuable customer.
database marketing
the use of customer relationship management databases to promote one to one relationships with customer and create precisely targeted promotions