Key Concepts 2.2

Where and when did the Achaeminid Empire exist?
The Achaemenid Empire existed in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great in 550 BCE, ending in 330 BCE.
Where and when did the Parthian Empire exist?
Also known as the Arsacid Empire, the Parthian Empire was located in ancient Iran from 247 BCE – 224 CE.
Where and when did the Sassanid Empire exist?
The Sassanid Empire was the last Iranian Empire before the rise of Islam, existing from 224 CE – 651 CE.
Where and when did the Qin Dynasty exist?
The first imperial dynasty of China, the Qin Dynasty lasted from 221 BCE to 206 BCE in eastern China.
Where and when did the Han Dynasty exist?
As the second Chinese imperial dynasty, the Han Dynasty existed from 206 BCE – 220 CE in China, and is often divided into two separate periods: the Western/Former Han (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Eastern/Latter Han (25 CE – 220 CE).
Where and when did the Maurya Empire exist?
The Maurya Empire existed in c.350BC – 150 BC in Eastern India after Chandragupta Maurya united the hundreds of individual kingdoms located there.
Where and when did the Gupta Empire exist?
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta, which existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE that covered most of the Indian subcontinent, primarily the north.
Where and when did Phoenicia and its colonies exist?
The Phoenician Colonies existed along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea stretching through what is now Syria, Lebanon and northern Israel from 1550 BC to 300 BC
Where and when did the Greek city-states and their colonies exist?
The Greek city-states and their colonies existed in southeastern Europe, known in Greek as Hellas or Ellada, and consisted of a mainland and an archipelago of islands from 800 BCE – 500 BCE.
Where and when did the Hellenistic Empire exist?
The Hellenistic Empire existed from 323 BCE – 31 BCE from Greece to India.
Where and when did the Roman Empire exist?
The Roman empire existed around the Mediterranean region around eighth century B.C
Where and when did Teotihuacan exist?
The Teotihuacan empire existed in Mesoamerica and was inhabited between 100 B.C and 650 A.D
Where and when did the Maya city-states exist?
The Maya-city states existed in Mesoamerica around 250-950 CE
Where and when did Moché exist?
The Moche existed in Andean South America around 1 CE and 800 CE.
How did rulers use centralized governments to organize their subjects?
They used centralized governments by using spies and placing governors in each state. This controlled the people and those who didn’t obey were punished by law.
How did rulers use elaborate legal systems to organize their subjects?
They made written codes of law to offer some protection. This also instilled some fear in the people.
How did rulers use bureaucracies to organize their subjects?
By using bureaucracies, rulers separated the people from themselves, giving the rulers more power, which created a social hierarchy.
How did Chinese rulers use administrative institutions to organize their subjects?
Chinese rulers exercised their governmental duties through the use of this. They used Legalism, which was the system of rewards and punishments, and Confucianism which set the relationships between people. They also used the balance aspect of Daoism
How did Persian rulers use administrative institutions to organize their subjects? Lots of local governments were used to control their large area.
Persian rulers used an administrative institution that required these properties: a centralized government, elaborate legal systems, and an elaborate bureaucracies. These types of governing systems required such techniques as: diplomacy, developing supply lines, building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads, and finding new military officers and soldiers locally. Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currency.
How did Roman rulers use administrative institutions to organize their subjects?
Use of Republic which mean senators (typically rich men) were elected to rule. They then switch governors of regions and they used them to impose the same kind of government upon the people. Roman rulers used an administrative institution that required these properties: a centralized government, elaborate legal systems, and an elaborate bureaucracies. These types of governing systems required such techniques as: diplomacy, developing supply lines, building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads, and finding new military officers and soldiers locally. Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currency.
How did South Asian rulers use administrative institutions to organize their subjects? Had big empires where you were ruled by kings. Lot of smaller regional governments
South Asian rulers used an administrative institution that required these properties: a centralized government, elaborate legal systems, and an elaborate bureaucracies. These types of governing systems required such techniques as: diplomacy, developing supply lines, building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads, and finding new military officers and soldiers locally. Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currency.
How did imperial governments project military power over larger areas by using diplomacy?
Many times, a central ruler would command from a capital city, leaving localized rulers to direct smaller regions or towns. This sometimes led to insubordination and small rebellions. Dynasties were set up to create successive lines of imperial rule, as seen in Chinese families, the Roman emperors, and Persian kings. In Rome, there was also an influential senate and imperial advisory counsel
How did imperial government’s project military power over larger areas by developing supply lines?
Supply lines were used to supply food to the military, and food was extremely important to keep the military functioning and not starving. The more food a military had, the stronger they were, making them able to conquer other people and spread out over larger areas.
How did imperial government’s project military power over larger areas by building fortifications, defensive walls, and roads?
Supply lines were used to supply food to the military, and food was extremely important to keep the military functioning and not starving. The more food a military had, the stronger they were, making them able to conquer other people and spread out over larger areas.
How did imperial governments project military power over larger areas by drawing new groups of military officers and soldiers from either local populations or conquered peoples?
If the people were conquered and were joining the military, they had no choice to do that. If the government was pulling from the local population, of course the soldiers would want to sacrifice their lives for their home state.
How did building and maintaining roads lead to imperial success?
You could trade farther out, so your economics were expanded, making the empire stronger
How did issuing currencies lead to imperial success?
By issuing currencies, you could ensure that people were buying with your type of money which helped the business cycle to continue in prosperity. It also kept people within your region inside, because your currency stayed in that region.
What role did Persepolis play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
Persepolis was a major city in Persia, literally meaning “city of Persians”. Because it was a major and influential city, it was the center of trade, government regulation, and religion.
What role did Chang’an play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
The Chang’an was a major city in China (used to be the capital). It ran many dynasties, was the center of trade, and the center of religion because it held many central temples.
What role did Pataliputra play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
Pataliputra was also a major city, and it was in India. From this city is where the Maurya and Gupta empires spread. It was also the center of trade, religion, and administrate empires because, like Chang’an, it was a major city.
What role did Athens play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
Pataliputra was also a major city, and it was in India. From this city is where the Maurya and Gupta empires spread. It was also the center of trade, religion, and administrate empires because, like Chang’an, it was a major city.
What role did Carthage play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
Carthage was a major city for trade because it had both land and sea routes. It also was religiously important because Christianity spread to it.
What role did Rome play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
Rome is important in terms of political affairs because a lot of stuff happened with it. Rome started as a city-state and then spread and became a Republic, and then became an empire.
What role did Alexandria play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
Alexandria was in Egypt and was a very large city with half a million people and there were many different types of people who lived there. It was also a harbor for long distance trade.
What role did Constantinople play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
Constantinople was religiously significant because they had a church council. It was also a place for the emerging Eastern Orthodox church.
What role did Teotihuacan play in its empire in terms of trade, religion, and/or administration?
Teotihuacan was a giant city thriving in the Valley of Mexico. It was enormous in size with huge market places, temples, and palaces.
Describe the hierarchical nature of social structures in empires in this time period.
Elites, Warriors, Merchants, Peasants
How did the corvée system help maintain the production of food and reward loyalty to elites?
The corvee system made peasants be loyal to elites, because they had to work unpaid under the law.
How did the slavery system help maintain the production of food and reward loyalty to elites?
slaves would make the food that the city would depend on, due to an interested government in the issuing and control of the currency, political memorandums and imperial marketing announcements of victory and acknowledgements of loyalty were incorporated in several issues. All chairs of elite power were reinforced by the labor of the majority of the population.
How did the rents and tributes system help maintain the production of food and reward loyalty to elites?
These systems worked well for both ends of them. The owner got good products for free, and the borrower got to use land or whatever they needed, but were still able to have the advantages that citizens had.
How did the peasant community system help maintain the production of food and reward loyalty to elites?
Peasants were forced to farm and give their best products to the elites.
How did the family and household production system help maintain the production of food and reward loyalty to elites?
This kept locally grown foods and possibly not as good foods to families and the best foods were given to the elites.
How did patriarchy continue to shape gender and family relations in imperial societies of this period?
Patriarchy put the male in charge, so males were always put in front of the women and the man was in charge of his family
How did environmental damage (like deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, or silted rivers) help contribute to the fall of the Roman Empire?
If the rivers, which supplied water for crops, were not doing so well, there would be no food source and therefore, the Roman people could not live, and so they would die.
How did economic disparities help contribute to the fall of the Roman Empire?
The Roman Empire got so large it just couldn’t control all of its people, including all the spending they were doing. So, if the government wasn’t able to watch all of the transactions take place, they could not support the empire as a whole.
How did tension with their northern and eastern neighbors help contribute to the fall of the Roman Empire?
Roman had tensions surrounding them, which made them paranoid that they would be attacked, so they couldn’t focus on their own lives, which made them crumble.
How did environmental damage (like deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, or silted rivers) help contribute to the fall of the Han Dynasty?
As populations increased and materials decreased, the amount of production needed to survive was no longer available from lack of environmental richness (soil, trees, etc.)