K201 Chapter 5

System Software
consists of the operating system and utility programs that control your computer. These programs enable the computer to boot, to launch application programs, and to facilitate jobs, and provide an interface between the user and the application software.
Application software
all the programs that allow you to perform specific tasks on your computer.
Operating system
a collection of programs that manage and coordinate the activities taking place within the computer. Boots the computer, launches application software, and ensures that all actions requested by a user are valid and processed in an orderly fashion.
Utility programs
perform support functions for the operating system. Performs a specific task, usually related to managing or maintaining a computer system.
Device drivers (drivers)
are used to communicate with peripheral devices. A program that enables an operating system to communicate with a specific hardware device.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
allows users to issue commands by selecting icons, buttons, menu items and other graphical objects (typically with the use of a mouse, pen, or finger). Most OS currently use a GUI.
Text-Based User Interface (Command Line Interface)
requires the users to input commands using the keyboard. (Prior example – DOS; currently some versions of UNIX and Linux).
File Management
keeping track of the files stored on a computer so that they can be retrieved when needed.
File Extension
(usually 3 or 4 characters preceded by a period at the end of the file name. These indicate the type of file it is. They are automatically added to a filename by a program in which that file was created, sometimes the user may have a choice of file extensions supported by a program.
Multitasking
– the ability of an operating system to have more than one program (task) open at one time. Run more than one program at a time.
Windows 10
latest version of Windows operating system – considered universal and will run on any device (smartphones, tablets, personal computers, servers).
OS X
Proprietary operating system for Mac Computers. – Considered innovative – set the standard for the GUI
Chrome OS
first cloud operating system – designed for devices that will be used entirely online. Currently only available on Chrome devices (Chromebooks).
Windows File Explorer
– file management program incorporated in recent versions of Windows.
Recycle Bin
Deleted files go into the Recycle bin where they can be restored (put back where they were deleted from) or emptied (which permanently deletes them). You can open the recycle bin and choose to restore a previously deleted file back to the location it was store prior to deleting it. Files are not permanently deleted until you empty the Recycle Bin.
Disk Defragmentation
program that optimizes your hard drive by rearranging the data on the hard drive so all files are stored in contiguous locations. This helps the computer run more efficiently. It is included in the Windows operating system.
Backup
Making a duplicate copy of important files so that when a problem occurs, you can restore those files using the backup copy to avoid data loss.
Computer Virus
a software program that is designed to cause damage to a computer or perform some other malicious act.
Spyware
a software program installed without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information and sends it to an outside party via the user’s Internet connection.
Firewall
a program that is designed to protect against someone accessing your computer via the Internet or a wireless connection.