service desk
single point of contact for users when there is a service disruption, a service request, or even some categories of requests for change; provides a point of communication to the users and a point of coordination for several IT groups and processes
technical management
provides the technical skills and resources needed to support the ongoing operation of IT services and the management of IT infrastructure; plays an important role in the design, testing, release, and improvement of IT services
IT operations management
executes the daily operational activities needed to manage the IT services and supporting IT infrastructure; this is done according to the performance standards defined during service design; two subfunctions that are generally organizationally distinct which are: IT operations control and facilities management
application management
responsible for managing applications throughout their lifecycle; function supports and maintains operational applications and also plays an important role in the design, testing, and improvement of applications that form part of IT services
Name the RCV processes from service transition
1. service asset and configuration management
2. change management
3. change evaluation
4. release and deployment management
5. service validation and testing
6. knowledge management
Name the RCV process from service operation
request fulfillment
purpose of service transition
ensure that new, changed, or retired services are meeting business expectations
objectives of service transition
-plan and manage service changes efficiently and effectively
-manage risks relating to new, changed, or retired services
-successfully deploy service releases into supported environments
-set correct expectations on the performance and sue of new or changed services
-ensure that service changes create the expected business value
-provide good-quality knowledge and information about services and service assets
scope of service transition
-manage the complex lifecycle of changes
-allow for innovation
-minimize the risk and unintended consequences of change
-introduce new services
-decommission and retire services and components
-transition services to and from external providers
-track and manage components of services
business value of service transition
-produce high volumes of successful change
-minimize the negative aspects of change
-enable sharing of assets to minimize costs
-reduce effort spent to manage test and pilot environments
-increase confidence that new or changed services will meet business requirements
-improve control of service assets and configuration
RCV interacts with service strategy through
1. financial management for IT services- helps determine the financial aspects of changes and releases
2. service portfolio management- change management is used to more services in and out of the service portfolio
3. demand management- patterns of business activity and user profiles are configuration items stored in the CMS and managed by the service asset and configuration management process
RCV interacts with service design through
1. service level management-services level agreements are configuration items, and are subject to change management
2. design coordination-the SDP is used to move services from one state to the next
3. availability management, capacity management, information security management, and IT service continuity management- participate in the change management process, and help assess the risk of impact caused by a change in their respective area
4. capacity management-ensures that capacity considerations were taken into account as part of release and deployment plans
RCV interacts with service operation
1. request fulfillment-interacts with change management through the concept of standard changes
2. problem management- often invoke change management to permanently correct the root causes of problems
3. incident management- relies on known error database during incident resolution, which is contained within the service knowledge management system
4. change management- provides a means for implementing service improvement plans
5. knowledge management- provides information used by continual service improvement when completing service improvement plans
various aspects to consider when developing an effective service transition strategy
-standards and agreements
-framework for service transition
-transition criteria
-requirements identification
key initiatives for preparing for effective service transition
-creating an effective service design package to determine how to move services from one lifecycle state to the next
-reviewing and accepting inputs from the other service lifecycle stages
-reviewing and checking the input deliverable (for example, change proposal, SDP, service acceptance criteria, and evaluation report
-identifying, raising, and scheduling RFCs
-checking that the configuration baselines are recorded in the CMS before the start of service transition checking transition readiness
planning and coordinating service transition activities
-planning an individual service transition
-integrated planning
-adopting program and project management best practices
-reviewing transition plans
various aspects to consider developing an effective Service Transition Strategy
-standards and agreements
-framework for service transition
-transition criteria
-requirements identification
-transition criteria
-requirements identification
How service transition provides transition process support to stakeholders
-ensure that all stakeholders understand transition plans
-progress monitoring and reporting
P. 1-37
service asset and configuration management purpose
-ensure that assets required to deliver services are properly controlled
service asset and configuration management purpose
-ensure that accurate and reliable information about the service assets and the relationships between those assets is available when needed
SACM objectives
-ensures that assets under the control of the IT organization are identified and controlled throughout their lifecycle
SACM objectives
-identify, control, record, report, audit, and verify service assets and configuration items, along with their attributes and relationships
SACM objectives
-account for, manage, and protect the integrity of configuration items
SACM objectives
-ensure the integrity of service assets and configuration items along with the configurations required to control these items
SACM objectives
-maintain accurate historical, current state, and planned configuration information
SACM objectives
-support other service management processes
scope of SACM
-manages the complete lifecycle of every CI
scope of SACM
-includes both internal and external services where ther are assets that need to be controlled
scope of SACM
-can include virtual assets such as virtual services
scope of SACM
-includes those fixed assets under the control of IT
business value of SACM
provides an accurate representation of services, releases, and environments; optimization of the performance of service assets
SACM enables
-better adherence to standards, legal, and regulatory obligations
-better forecasting
-improved change and release management
-fewer incidents and problems
-improved incident and problem resolution
-improved ability to meet SLAs
-ability to trace changes to requirements
-better cost control
-easier identification of the total cost of a service
-increased ability to demonstrate the overall control of assets and services
SACM business value – real life situations
-source code control
-ERP/intelligence: SACM is augumented by the CMIS/AMIS which help monitor/measure performance and are the basis for starting to create a service mgmt intelligence system for ITSM; the service desk when coupled with SACM and service level management can then be thought of as a quasi ITSM-CRM system as it enables IT to manage and report on the relationship it has with its customers and users of its services
-system automation tables
SACM policies
-are based on the organization’s business drivers
-are defined for specific asset types
-have cost and resource implications
SACM principles
-ensure that SACM costs are in-line with risks to services
-meet governance requirements
-deliver services as defined by SLAs
-move from “find to fix” to “predict and prevent” proactive maintenance
-maintain adequate and complete configuration information for internal and external stakeholders
basic concept SACM: service asset
any capability or resource that contributes to the delivery of a service
basic concept SACM: configuration item
any asset that needs to be managed and controlled in order to deliver service
basic concept SACM: configuration record
any record that details information such as attributes about a configuration item as well as relationships between that configuration item and other configuration items
basic concept SACM: SKMS
a set of tools and databases used to manage knowledge and information
basic concept SACM: configuration model
SACM process delivers and manages a single common representation, or model, of services, assets, components,a nd the relationships between all of these items; they provide the following:
-ability to assess the impact and cause of incidents and problems
-ability to assess the impact of proposed changes
-ability to plan and design new or changed services
-ability to plan releases and migrate service assets
-ability to optimize asset utilization and costs
SACM types of CIs: service lifecycle CIs
provide an overall picture of an organization’s services, and may include the business case, service management plans, service lifecycle plans, service design packages, release and change plans, and test plans
SACM types of CIs: service CIs
include capability assets such as management, organization, processes, knowledge and people as well as resource assets such as capital, applications, infrastructure, information, and data; additionally, service CIs include the service model, service packages, release packages, and service acceptance criteria
SACM types of CIs: organization CIs
include the organization’s business strategy or other policies
SACM types of CIs: internal CIs
are those components delivered by individual projects, and include both tangible and intangible assets
SACM types of CIs: external CIs
are those components provided by suppliers or external third parties
SACM types of CIs: interface CIs
are components that are required to deliver a service across a service provider interface; an example given by ITIL is an escalation document that details how two organizations will handle incidents transferred between them
configuration management database
a database used to store configuration records throughout their lifecycle ; stores attributes of CIs and relationships with other CIs
configuration management system
-holds all the information for CIs within a defined scope as established when the configuration management processes are designed
configuration management system
-along with the CMDB, contains information about CIs, not the CIs themselves
configuration management system
-integrated with a variety of other external systems to perform specific asset management processes reporting outside of configuration management
configuration management system
-maintains relationships between other service components such as incidents, problems, known errors, and change and release documentation related to specific CIs; may also contain corporate data about employees, suppliers, locations, and business units, customers, and users
configuration management system
-covers the data and information layers of DIKW (data, info, knowledge, wisdom) hierarchy
CMS views: change and release view
-is intended for use by those personnel involved in change management activities; provides the ability to understand the impact of changes on other configuration items
CMS views: technical configuration view
-is useful for technical and application management functions
CMS views: service desk view
-is used by the service desk when logging and managing incidents and service requests
CMS views: configuration lifecycle view
-is used by the SACM personnel when managing the organization’s CIs
CMS components: secure libraries
-collection of software, electronic or document CIs
-restricted access
CMS components: secure stores
-location that warehouses IT assets
-defined within the CMS
CMS components: definitive media library
one or more locations in which the definitive and authorized versions of all software configuration items are securely stored; may also contain associated configuration items such as licenses and documentation; IT is a single logical storage area even if there are multiple locations; controlled by service asset and configuration management and is recorded in the configuration management system
CMS components: definitive media library
– the secure library in which the definitive authorized versions of all media CIs are stored and protected
CMS components: definitive media library
should include:
-definitive copies of purchased software (along with license documents or information) as well as software developed on site
-master copies of controlled documentation for a system, in electronic form
-a physical store to hold master copies (for example, a fireproof safe)
-only authorized media strictly controlled by SACM
CMS components: definitive media library
is a foundation for release and deployment management; is defined during the planning activities in the Service Lifecycle and includes:
-medium, physical location, hardware, and software to be used, if kept online; some configuration management support tools incorporate document or software libraries, which can be regarded as a logical part of a DML
-naming conventions for file-store areas and physical media
-environments supported (for example, test and live environments)
-security arrangements for submitting changes and issuing documentation and software, plus backup and recovery procedures
-the scope of the DML (for example, source code, object code from controlled builds, and associated documentation)
-archive and retention periods
-capacity plans for the DML and procedures for monitoring growth in size
-audit procedures
-procedures to ensure that the DML is protected from erroneous or unauthorized change (for example, entry and exit cirtieria for items)
CMS components: definitive spares
-are secure storage of definitive hardware spares
-are maintained at the same revision level as controlled test or live environment equipment
-detail the items stored in the CMS
-are managed as other fixed assets
other uses of CMS: configuration baseline
a baseline of configuration that has been formally agreed on and is managed through the change management process; used as a basis for future builds, releases, and changes
other uses of CMS: configuration baseline
-is formally reviewed and agreed on configuration of a service
-provides a baseline for future activities
-is changed only through formal change management
establishing a baseline provides the ability to
-mark a milestone in the development of a service
-build a service component from a defined set of inputs
-change or rebuild a specific version at a later date
-assemble all relevant components in readiness for a change or release
-provide the basis for a configuration audit and back-out
other uses of CMS: snapshots
-show current state of a configuration item or environment
-are recorded and stored in the CMS
-are sometimes called footprints
-are often used during change remediation
other uses of CMS: asset management
-includes fixed assets that have a financial value
-could be managed by a fixed asset management process
-includes software asset management
the CMS is used by asset management to
-identify each asset, including unique naming and labels
-identify and record asset owners
-maintain an asset register that includes details of all fixed assets
-understand the purchase cost, depreciation, and net book value of each asset
-help to protect the assets from damage, theft and so forth
-carrying out regular audits to ensure the integrity of fixed assets
the CMS is used for the following activities related to fixed assets
-tracking and reporting CI lifecycle changes; the service provider also use this tracking as an opportunity to review maintenance contracts, to ensure that these are aligned with the assets that are in use
-providing unique names for assets and applying suitable labels to enable identification and audit
-protecting assets to ensure their integrity
-carrying out regular audits of the fixed assets under their control
the CMS can be used to help control specific risks associated with software assets
-software being used without licenses being purchased
-loss of proof of licenses which have been purchased
-terms and conditions being breached unknowingly
-purchasing more licenses than are needed and not being that these are under-utilized
SACM decommissioning occurs when
-service is no longer needed
-there is a technology refresh
-hardware failure results in replacement of components
-there is reduced demand for service
SACM decommissioning specific steps
-redeploy and reuse
-dispose effectively
-decommission data
-return leased equipment
-update and cancel contracts
-update the CMS
-communicate new status
SACM activities
1. management and planning
2. configuration identification
3. configuration control
4. status accounting and reporting
5. verification and audit
SACM activities: management and planning
-determine appropriate level of configuration management
-develop configuration management plan
-document configuration management governance model
-acquire and implement configuration management tools
-define configuration management processes and procedures
-interface with other service management processes
SACM activities: management and planning – configuration identification
-configuration structures and the selection of configuration items
-naming configuration items
-labeling configuration items
-attributes for configuration items
-defining configuration documentation
-types of configuration items
-identification of media libraries
-identification of configuration baselines
-identification of release unit
SACM activities: configuration control
-ensures adequate control over CIs
-maintains a record of changes to CIs
-ensures no CI is added, modified, or deleted without appropriate control and documentation
SACM activities: status accounting and reporting
-each CI has a lifecycle of states
-the significance of each state, as well as how configuration items move between states needs to be defined
-CIs typically have a range of states that are important from perspective of what can be done using that CI
SACM activities: verification and audit
-ensures conformity between documented baselines
-verifies the physical existence of CIs
-ensures that release and configuration documentation is present prior to release
triggers of SACM
-updates from change management
-updates from release and deployment management
-purchase orders
-service requests
inputs of SACM
-designs, plans, and configurations from service design packages
-requests for change and work orders from change management
-actual configuration information collected by tools and audits
-information in the organization’s fixed asset register
outputs of SACM
-new and updated configuration records
-updated asset information for use in updating the fixed asset register
-information about attributes and relationships of configuration items, for use by all other service management processes
-configuration snapshots and baselines
-status reports and other consolidated configuration information
-audit reports
information management in SACM
-backup of the CMS should be taken regularly and stored securely
-CMS contains information about back copies of CIs
-CMS should contain records for physically available items or items that can easily be created
CSF: Accounting for, managing, and protecting the integrity of CIs throughout the service lifecycle
-KPI: improved accuracy in budgets and charges for the assets utilized by each customer or business unit
-KPI: increase in reuse and redistribution of under-utilized resources and assets
-KPI: reduction in the use of unauthorized hardware and software, non standard and variant builds that increase complexity, support costs, and risk to the business services
-KPI: reduced number of exceptions reported during configuration audits
CSF: Supporting efficient and effective service management processes by providing accurate configuration information at the right time
-KPI: percentage improvement in maintenance scheduling over the life of an asset (not too much, not too late)
-KPI:improved speed for incident management to identify faulty CIs and restore service
-KPI: reduction in the average time and cost of diagnosing and resolving incidents and problems (by type)
-KPI:improved ratio of used licenses against paid-for licenses
-KPI: improvement in time to identify poor-performing and poor-quality assets
-KPI: reduction in risks due to early identification of unauthorized change
-KPI: reduced percentage of changes not completed successfully or causing errors because of poor impact assessment, incorrect data in the CMS, or poor version control
CSF: Establishing and maintaining an accurate and complete CMS
-KPI: reduction in business impact of outages and incidents caused by poor service asset and configuration management
-KPI: increased quality and accuracy of configuration information
-KPI: improved audit compliance
-KPI: shorter audits as quality configuration information is easily accessible
-KPI: fewer errors caused by people working with out-of-date information
challenges of SACM
-persuading technical staff to follow a checking in/out policy
-funding for SACM
-data overload
-lack of management commitment
risks of SACM
-technically-focused rather than service-focused SACM
-degradation of accuracy of configuration information over time
-setting the scope too wide
-setting the scope too narrow
-CMS becomes inaccurate over time
SACM Activities performed by Service Operation
-detect discrepancies between CIs and the CMS
-inform SACM of discrepancies
-correct discrepancies
-label and tag physical assets
-assist with audit activities
purpose of change management
-control the lifecycle of all changes
-enable beneficial changes
-minimize the disruption associated with changes
objectives of change management
-respond to changing business requirements
-maximize value while reducing disruption
-respond to business and IT requests for change
-ensure that changes are recorded and evaluated
-ensure that authorized changes are prioritized, planned, tested, implemented, documented, and reviewed in a controlled manner
-ensure that all changes are recorded in the CMS
-optimize overall business risk
scope of change management
-service solutions for new or changed services
-management information systems and tools
-the service portfolio
-technology and management architectures
-service management processes
-measurement systems, methods, and metrics
out of scope of change management
1. organizationally defined
2. changes to business operations and policies
3. some operational level changes
4. coordinating all of the service management processes used to implement new or changed services
business value of change management
-protect the business while making changes
-implement changes while optimizing cost
-provide auditable evidence of change management activity
-reduce failed changes and their effects
-reduce unauthorized changes and their effects
-deliver changes promptly and in-line with business timescales
-track changes across the service lifecycle
-improve change estimates and assessments of risk
-liaise with the business change process
policies of change management
-encourage a culture of change
-align change management with business change management
-ensure business value from change
-prioritize changes
-establish accountability and responsibility for changes
-establish and enforce change windows
-performance and risk evaluation of changes
-performance measures for change management
design and planning considerations of change management
-should be planned in conjunction with release and deployment management; service asset and configuration management
-compliance with legislation, codes of practice and standards
-elimination of unauthorized changes
-identification and classification of changes: change types, impact, urgency, and priority
-organization, roles and responsibilities: authorization of changes; composition of CAB and ECAB
-interfaces with other service management processes
Change Advisory Board (CAB)
a group of people that advises the change manager in the assessment, prioritization, and scheduling of changes
Emergency Change Advisory Board (ECAB)
a subset of the change advisory board who make decisions about high-impact emergency changes
a measure of the effect of an incident, problem, or change on business processes
a combination of impact and urgency, indicating which of many items should be handled first
a measure of how long it will be until an incident, problem, or change has a significant impact on the business
the addition, modification, or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT services
a formal proposal for a change to be made
change record
a record containing the details of a change
a pre-approved change that is low risk, relatively common, and follows a procedure or work instruction (for example: a password reset or the provision of standard equipment to a new employee); RFCs are typically not required to implement a standard change as they are logged are tracked using a different mechanism, such as a service request
examples of standard change
-PC upgrade in order to make use of specific but standard and pre-budgeted software, provision of a PC to new employees that are being hired within the organization, or a desktop move for a single user; low impact routine application changes to handle seasonal variations
normal change
the addition, modification, or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT Services; the scope should include all IT services, configuration items. processes, documentation, and so forth
examples of normal change
sets the standard for all types of normal changes within the organization; standard change must have been first executed as a normal change; to create a standard desktop image; normal change mashalls the change through the full change, release, deployment, and configuration management cycle
emergency change
a change that must be introduced as soon as possible
standard change
-has a defined trigger
-consists of well-known, documented, and proven tasks
-is authorized in advance
-receives budgetary approval, usually in advance
-involves low risk and well understood
normal change
-any change that is neither standard nor emergency
-planned in advance
-evaluated by the CAB
-implemented according to defined procedures
change models include
-steps to be taken to handle the change
-the chronological order in which the steps are taken
-responsibilities associated with the change
-timescales and thresholds associated with the change
-escalation procedures
change proposals
-can involve significant cost and risk
-are submitted by service portfolio management
-typically contain: an overall description of the change; the full business case in support of the change; a schedule for design and implementation of the change
-are reviewed by change management
overall change management activities
-planning and controlling changes
-change and release scheduling
-change decision-making and change authorization
-ensuring that remediation plans are in place
-measurement and control
-management reporting
-understanding the impact of change
-continual improvement