ISYS 209 Exam 1

People Dimension
Training, job attitudes, and management behavior
Technology Dimension
Computer hardware, software, data management technology, and networking/telecommunications tech, including the Internet
Organization Dimension
Organizations hierarchy, functional specialties, business processes, culture, and political interest groups
An Information System
set of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and distribute information to support decision making and control in an org. Information systems may also help managers and workers analyze problems, visualize complex subjects, and create new products
Information Technology
all the hardware and software that a firm uses to achieve its business objectives
Outsourcing
process of delegating business to external shareholders
Information Systems Literacy
broad understanding of information systems
Problem Solving Process
1. Problem Identification
2. Solution design
3. Solution Eval & Choice
4. Implementation
Solution Design
considers multiple solutions
Solution Eval & Choice
selecting best solution, taking into account its cost and available resources and skills in business
Implementation
Purchasing or building hardware and software, testing the software, and providing employees with training and documentation. Also entails managing change as the system is introduced into the organization and measuring the outcome.
Emerging Mobile Digital Platform
Smartphones are able to download hundreds of thousands of applications to support collaboration, location-based services, and communication with colleagues. Tablets challenge conventional laptops as platforms for consumer and corporate computing.
Growing use of “Big Data”
Businesses now look for insights from huge volumes of data from Web traffic, email messages, social media content, and machines (sensors) that require new data management tools to capture, store, and analyze
Growth in Cloud computing
As a part of this growth, a flexible collection of computers on the internet begins to perform tasks traditionally performed on corporate computers
Proliferation of virtual meetings
As the Technology has advanced, managers have adopted telepresence videoconferencing and Web conferencing technologies to reduce travel time and cost, while improving collaboration and decision making.
Six Strategic Business Objectives
1. Operational Excellence
2. Creating New Products, services, and business models
3. Customer and Supplier Intimacy
4. Improved Decision Making
5. Competitive Advantage
6. Survival
Improved Decision Making Example
Verizon Corp. uses web-based digital dashboard to provide managers with precise real-time info on customer complaints, network performance for each locality served, and line outages or storm-damaged lines. Using this info, managers can immediately allocate repair resources, inform consumers of repair efforts, and restore service fast
Operational Excellence Example
Walmart archived $473 billion in sales in large part because of its Retail Link system, which digitally links its suppliers to every one of Walmart’s stores. As soon as a customer purchases an item, the supplier monitoring the item knows to ship a replacement to the shelf.
-Info systems and technologies are some of the most important tools available to managers for achieving higher levels of efficiency and business practices and management behavior
Customer and Supplier Intimacy Example
The Mandarin Oriental hotel in Manhattan keeps track of guests’ preferences, such as their preferred room temperature and television programs, in a large data repository. Individual rooms are networked to a central network server computer, so that when a customer arrives, the system automatically changes the room conditions to meet each customer’s specifications.
3 Activities in an info system that produce info orgs need to make decisions, control operations, analyze problems, and create new products or services
1. Input
2. Processing
3. Output
Input
captures or collects raw data from within the organization or from its external environment.
Processing
converts this raw input into a meaningful form.
Output
transfers processed info to people who will use it or to the activities for which it will be used
International communication is now
instant & virtually free
Globalization
1. Internet Service firms, such as google and ebay, are able to replicate their business models and services in multiple countries without having to redesign their expensive fixed-cost infor systems infrastructure
2. Customers can now shop in a worldwide marketplace, obtaining price and quality info reliably 24hrs a day
3. Firms producing goods and services on a global scale achieve extraordinary cost reductions by finding low-cost suppliers and managing production facilities in other countries
Information system skills and knowledge essential in business careers
1. Appreciation of central role of databases
2. An understanding of how info systems help firms achieve major business objectives
3. The ability to work with technology specialists and other business professionals in designing and building systems
4. Skills in information analysis and business intelligence
5. Sensitivity to ethical, social, and legal issues raised by systems
How are info systems transforming business?
1. Supply chains have become more fast-paced, with companies of all sizes depending on just-in-time inventory to reduce their overhead costs and get to market faster
2. Businesses are starting to use social networking tools to connect their employees, customers, and managers worldwide. Many fortune 500 companies now have Facebook pages, Twitter accounts, and Tumblr sites
3. Smartphones, texting, mail, and online conferencing have all become essential tools of business
4. Despite the economic slowdown, e-commerce and internet advertising continue to expand
4 Elements of Critical Thinking
1. Maintaining doubt & suspending judgment
2. Focusing on one perspective
3. Testing Alternatives & letting experience guide
4. Being aware of personal & org limitations
Offshoring
when a company transfers tasks of the firm to other firms that operate in low-wage countries, possibly reducing job opportunities within U.S.
Enterprise Applications
systems that span functional areas, focus on executing business processes across the business firm, and include all levels of management.
Four major enterprise applications
1. enterprise systems
2. supply chain management systems
3. customer relationship management systems
4. knowledge management systems.
Enterprise Systems
Supply chain management systems
automate the flow of information between a firm and its suppliers in order to optimize the planning, sourcing, manufacturing, and delivery of products and services.
Customer relationship management (CRM) systems
track all the ways in which a company interacts with its customers and analyze these interactions to optimize revenue, profitability, customer satisfaction, and customer retention.
Knowledge management systems
support the creation, capture, storage, and dissemination of firm expertise and knowledge.
Intranets and extranets
are private corporate networks based on Internet technology that assemble information from disparate systems.
Transaction processing systems (TPS)
are systems serving operational management, such as payroll or order processing, that track the flow of the daily routine transactions necessary to conduct business.
Management information systems (MIS)
produce reports serving middle management by condensing information from transaction processing systems, and these are not highly analytical.
Decision-support systems (DSS)
support management decisions that are unique and rapidly changing using advanced analytical methods.
-info systems at the orgs management level that combine data & sophisticated analytical models or data analysis tools to support semi-structured and unstructured decision making
Executive support systems (ESS)
-Systems for senior management that provide data in the form of graphs, charts, and dashboards delivered via portals using many sources of internal and external information
-information systems at the organization’s strategic level designed to address unstructured decision making through advanced graphics and communications.
-address non-routine decisions requiring judgement, evaluation, and insight because there is no agreed-on procedure for arriving at a solution
Interorganizational systems
info systems that automate flow of info across org boundaries and link a company to its customers, distributors, and suppliers
Downloading an e-book from Amazon, buying a computer online at Best Buy, and downloading a song from Itunes
examples of how new information technology frequently changes the way a business works and supports entirely new business models
A business Process
a logically related set of activities that defines how specific business tasks are performed and represents a unique way in which an org coordinates work, info, and knowledge
A business model
abstraction of what an enterprise is and how the enterprise delivers a product or service, showing how the enterprise creates wealth
The info systems department
The department responsible for maintaining the hardware, software, data storage, and networks that comprise the firm’s IT infrastructure
Programmers
highly trained tech specialists who write the software instructions for computers
Collaboration platforms
Google Sites/ Google Apps, Microsoft Sharepoint, and IBM notes
Enterprise Social networking tools
tools that create business value by connecting the members of an org through profiles, updates, and notifications, similar to FB features, but tailored to internal corporate uses
Social Business
the use of social networking platforms, including fb, twitter, and internal corporate social tools, to engage employees, customers, and suppliers, and enhance collaborative work.
Wikis
type of web site that makes it easy for users to contribute and edit text content and graphics without any knowledge of web page development or programming techniques
Cyberlockers
such as Google Drive, are online file-sharing services that allow users to upload files to a secure online storage site from which the files can be synchronized and shared with others
Telepresence
a technology that allows a person to give the appearance of being present at a location other than his or her true physical location
Systems Analysts
constitute the principal liaisons between the information systems groups and the rest of the organization. It is the systems analyst’s job to translate business problems and requirements into information requirements and systems.
Info systems managers
are leaders of teams of programmers and analysts, project managers, physical facility managers, telecommunications managers, or database specialists. They are also managers of computer operations and data entry staff.
Chief Info Officer (CIO)
is a senior manager who oversees the use of information technology in the firm. Today’s CIOs are expected to have a strong business background as well as information systems expertise and to play a leadership role in integrating technology into the firm’s business strategy.
Social Business & Collaboration
-Social business can enhance collaborative work
-have become increasingly important in business because of globalization and the decentralization of decision making.
-have become increasingly important in business because of growth in jobs where interaction is the primary value-adding activity.
-enhance innovation, productivity, quality, and customer service
Info systems
automate many steps in business processes that were formerly performed manually
Business Process Reengineering
Four ways of organizing business internationally
1. Domestic Exporter
2. Multinational
3. Franchiser
4. Transnational
a transnational strategy
nearly all the value-adding activities are managed from a global perspective without reference to national borders, optimizing sources of supply and demand wherever they appear and taking advantage of any local competitive advantage. There is a strong central management core of decision making but considerable dispersal of power and financial muscle throughout the global divisions.
domestic exporter strategy
characterized by heavy centralization of corporate activities in the country of origin. Production, finance/accounting, sales/marketing, human resources, and strategic management are set up to optimize resources in the home country.
A multinational strategy
concentrates financial management and control out of a central home base while decentralizing production, sales, and marketing operations to units in other countries. The products and services on sale in different countries are adapted to suit local market conditions.
Franchisers
have the product created, designed, financed, and initially produced in the home country but rely heavily on foreign personnel for further production, marketing, and human resources. Nonetheless, local production of some items, local marketing, and local recruitment of personnel are required
Info systems help companies compete by
-Differentiating products or services
-Maintaining low costs
-Strengthening ties with customers and suppliers
-enable a specific, niche market focus, and serve this narrow target market better than competitors. Information systems support this strategy by producing and analyzing data for finely tuned sales and marketing techniques.
Support Activities
consist of organization infrastructure (administration and management), human resources (employee recruiting, hiring, and training), technology (improving products and the production process), and procurement (purchasing input). Support activities are part of the value chain model and make the delivery of the primary activities possible.
Primary Activites
include inbound logistics (receiving and storing materials for distribution to production), operations (transforming inputs into finished products), outbound logistics (storing and distributing finished products), sales and marketing, and service. Primary activities are part of the value chain model.
Switching costs
refer to the expense a customer or company incurs in lost time and expenditure of resources when changing from one supplier or system to another competing supplier or system.
Core Competencies
activities in which a firm is a world-class leader. Any information system that encourages the sharing of knowledge across business units enhances competency.
Synergies
occur when the output of some units can be used as inputs to other units, or two organizations pool markets and expertise. Such relationships can lower costs and generate profits.
Benchmarking
refers to setting strict standards for products, services, or activities, and measuring organizational performance against those standards.
Best Practices
are the most successful solutions or problem-solving methods that have been developed by a specific organization or industry.
What primary goal does the San Francisco​ Giants’ “dynamic ticket​ pricing” help​ accomplish?
It allows ticket prices to fluctuate according to demand.
Businesses in America will spend approximately​ $600 ____________ on​ hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment in 2015.
billion
With new laws requiring the storage of emails and other important​ documents, estimates of information systems storage now exceeds​ 1.8:
zettabytes
When talking about changes related to information​ technology, the text identifies three interrelated changes that are responsible for the bulk of innovations. These include the mobile digital​ platform, ________________________, and the growth of cloud computing.
the growing use of big data
​___________________ is a business driver which focuses on ways to achieve better efficiencies to increase profits.
Operational excellence
If a competitor to your business introduces an effective product or service​ (i.e., when Citibank first introduced the​ ATM), your need to follow is considered an example of the business​ driver:
Survival
A manager upset that he or she is not receiving​ forecasts, sales​ projections, or appropriate dashboards is expressing frustration for having a poor​ ______________ business​ driver:
Improved Decision Making
An automobile rental company interested in learning and adapting to the needs of its customers is focusing on the business​ driver:
Customer and Supplier Intimacy
Which is an example of a business using information systems for customer​ intimacy?
Mandarin Oriental​ Hotel’s customer-preference tracking system
In its simplest​ form, ___________ represents streams of raw facts with limited usefulness until organized.
data
An information system can be defined technically as a set of interrelated components that collect​ (or retrieve),​ process, store, and distribute information to support which of the​ following?
Decision making and control in an organization
What is the name for the process of converting raw data into a more meaningful​ form?
Processing
What is the name for the field that deals with behavioral issues as well as technical issues surrounding the​ development, use, and impact of information systems used by managers and employees in the​ firm?
Management information systems
Information​ systems, management information​ systems, information​ technology, information​ management, and computer information systems are often confused with one another. Which of these focuses primarily on hardware and​ software?
information technology
Which of the following is NOT an element of critical​ thinking?
Providing iterative feedback
Which of the following business problems is NOT a problem in the technology​ dimension?
Complexity of task
Which of the following is NOT a step in the​ problem-solving process?
Solution analysis
Which of the following is NOT considered to be a typical people​ problem?
Political conflict
The problem solving model consists of problem​ identification, solution​ design, ________________, and implementation.
solution evaluation and choice
If you are solving a problem using the problem solving​ model, the phase where you identify as many possible solutions as possible would represent the​ ___________ phase.
solution design
The final phase of the problem solving model is the​ ___________ phase.
implementation
Accountants rely heavily on information systems to do all of the following EXCEPT​ ________.
manage financial investments
Which of the following is FALSE about the information systems occupations through​ 2022?
Offshore outsourcing will decrease demand in the U.S. for managerial IS positions.
​_____________ is the largest single group in the U.S. business labor force and this group dramatically benefits from information to help with the decision making process.
management
Among fields such as​ accounting, finance,​ marketing, and​ others, which has undergone the most change because of technology in the past 5​ years?
marketing
ABB implemented a​ __________ system to help staff more effectively locate information about company projects and initiatives.
dynamic knowledge sharing
An antique dealer buying items and hoping to sell them for more than he or she paid for them is the very definition of​ a:
business
The four major functions of a business include​ manufacturing/production, sales/marketing,​ finance/accounting, and​ _________________.
human resources
Which of the following statements represents a responsibility of the sales and marketing functional​ area?
Identifying customers
The order fulfillment process involves which of the following functional areas of the​ business?
​Sales, accounting,​ manufacturing, and production
Which of the following is FALSE about the needs for information by different groups in an​ organization?
Knowledge workers need access to financial performance information.
A secretary assisting management is considered a​ _________ worker.
data
Which of the following entities is NOT a part of the​ firm’s environment?
Employees
​____________ focus on​ day-to-day operations of a business including managing​ sales, payroll, and receipts.
Transaction processing systems
​_______________ is an emerging area where data is organized in a meaningful way to help managers make​ data-driven business decisions.
Business intelligence
Examining a map that depicts different colors based on flu outbreaks is an example of a digital​ ____________.
dashboard
​__________________ are designed to capture critical​ processes, procedures, and experience to ensure this critical content​ isn’t lost when someone leaves the organization.
Knowledge management systems
eBay is an example of​ a/n ___________ because it sells products over the Internet.
electronic commerce
Someone visiting a government website to purchase a fishing license is specifically an example​ of:
​E-government
​________________ commonly involves sites like Twitter and Facebook to collaborate with customers.
Social business
Which of the following is NOT a reason that collaboration and teamwork are more important today than​ ever?
Growth of outsourcing
A​ ______________ is a social website that allows groups to meet together and share knowledge about a specific area like​ coins, space, or stamps.
community
Which of the following is NOT an application used in social​ business?
Email
​___________ commerce is a way for individuals to provide feedback and reviews about products and services.
Social
Which of the following is a file storage and synchronization service for cloud​ storage, file​ sharing, and collaborative​ editing?
Google Drive
A key benefit of collaboration is​ _______________, which focuses on deriving better and more unique ideas for products and services.
innovation
Which capability of social software allows users to use​ real-time information​ streams, status​ updates, and​ announcements?
Feeds and notifications
​_________________ are information systems professionals who help bridge the relationships between programmers and end users to identify requirements for improved systems.
Systems analysts
What is the advantage of having a centralized information services​ department, which operates as a separate department similar to other​ departments?
This is more likely to produce more compatible systems and more coherent​ long-term systems development plans.
A​ ________ is a senior manager who oversees the use of IT in the firm.
CIO
Which of​ Porter’s competitive forces model would describe an organization that loses customers due to its product prices being too​ high?
Substitute products and services
Which of the following is NOT an impact of the Internet on competitive forces and industry​ structure?
Reduces the price of products and services
Which type of activity within the value chain model is directly related to the production and distribution for a​ firm’s products and​ services?
Primary activities
Which of the following is NOT an example of a primary activity in the value​ chain?
Human resources management
Which of the following is NOT a way that information systems provide a competitive​ advantage?
Collecting and storing large amounts of data
​Porter’s Five Forces Model states that the intensity of the competitive forces determines all of the following EXCEPT industry​ ________.
segmentation
Which of the following is NOT part of the description of a value​ web?
They promote communication among units.
Which of the following is NOT an example of disruptive​ technologies?
Digital television
When a firm does something in which they are a​ world-class leader, that activity would be considered to be a​ _____________ for the company.
core competency
If​ Koa’s Puppy Food Corporation maintains a highly centralized operation with all corporate operations taking place in its home​ country, it is said to have a​ ___________ global strategy.
Domestic exporter
A networked system configuration supports which of the following international business​ strategies?
Multinational and transnational
If​ Koa’s Puppy Food Corporation maintains a highly centralized operation with financial​ management, but decentralizes production and marketing to other​ countries, is said to have a​ ___________ global strategy.
Multinational
If​ Koa’s Puppy Food Corporation maintains a strategy to take advantage of local competitive advantages and avoids the notion of national​ boarders, it is said to have a​ ___________ global strategy.
Transnational
Companies often use information systems to improve quality by​ ______________ as a way to set standards for products and services against predefined standards.
benchmarking
To help improve​ quality, Delta Airlines installed customer care systems at some of its airport gates. The goal of this information system is to improve​ ______________________.
customer service and the quality of the product
Automobiles have the opportunity to use​ computer-aided design​ (CAD) to create virtual models of parts and even prototype vehicles. This use of information systems to improve quality is related to​ ______________________.
improving design quality and precision
The acronym related to organizational​ improvements, TQM, stands for​ ____________________.
total quality management
The popular quality management technique that specifically calls for 3.4 defects per million opportunities is called​ ______________.
Six sigma
​______________ is a​ term, when described from a customer​ perspective, that involves demanding​ durability, safety, ease of​ use, as well as service effectiveness and responsiveness.
Quality
​______________ is the total time it takes a child to purchase lemonade​ ingredients, create the​ lemonade, and set up operations for a neighborhood lemonade stand.
Cycle time
​______ is the acronym related to a leading model for improving business processes to enhance competitiveness.
BPM
​____________ is the final and ongoing step of the business process management model.
Continuous measurement
Which of the following is FALSE regarding the description of business process management​ (BPM)?
It works on increasing process throughput and quality.
In the Datacard​ Case, the company decided on a complete business process transformation. An example of a successful business process redesign described in the case included​ ________________.
the distribution of pricing to​ Datacard’s partners
​____________ is a business process improvement model which is most known and used when dramatic change is needed to gain improvements in productivity and efficiency.
Business process reengineering