IST 341Midterm Exam Practice

Which of the following are essential managers of every operating system? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Memory manager
b. System manager
c. Directory manager
d. Process manager
Memory Manager
Process Manager
(Answer: a and d)
The ____________________ was developed in the late 1970s to offer inexpensive computational capability to individual users.
virtual memory
____________________ are computers placed inside other products to add features and capabilities.
Embedded systems
With ____________________, different operating systems can run on a single computer.
virtualization
Which of the following is a portion of the program that can run independently of other programs?
a. Kernel
b. Thread
c. Firmware
d. Part
Thread
(Answer: b)
The ____________________ is the part of the operating system that resides in memory at all times, performs the most essential operating system tasks, and is protected by hardware from user tampering.
kernel
Which of the following memory management schemes does not allow multiprogramming?
a. Single-user contiguous scheme
b. Fixed partition
c. Dynamic partition
d. Relocatable dynamic partitions
Single-user contiguous scheme
(Answer: a)
Which of the following are the disadvantages of a fixed partition scheme (choose all that apply)?
a. Requires that the entire program be loaded into memory
b. Requires that the entire program be stored contiguously
c. Requires that the entire program remain in memory until the job is completed
d. Does not allow multiprogramming
Requires that the entire program be loaded into memory

Requires that the entire program be stored contiguously

Requires that the entire program remain in memory until the job is completed

(Answer: a, b, and c)

The phenomenon of partial usage of fixed partitions and the coinciding creation of unused spaces within the partition is called ____________________.
internal fragmentation
Which of the following memory management schemes optimizes fragmentation?
a. Single-user contiguous scheme
b. Fixed partition
c. Dynamic partition
d. Relocatable dynamic partitions
Relocatable dynamic partitions
(Answer: d)
The ____________________ is used to store the highest location in memory accessible by each program.
bounds register
____________________ is the process of collecting fragments of available memory space into contiguous blocks by moving programs and data in a computer’s memory or disk.
Compaction
Which of the following is the correct way of calculating the address of the page frame?
a. Multiply the page frame number by the page frame size
b. Divide the page frame size by the page frame number
c. Add the page frame number and the page frame size
d. Multiply the page frame number by the displacement
Multiply the page frame number by the page frame size
(Answer: a)
Which of the following are the disadvantages of demand paged memory allocation? (choose all that apply)
a. Increased overhead caused by tables and page interrupts
b. Thrashing
c. Job size limited by memory size
d. Does not allow multiprogramming
Increased overhead caused by tables and page interrupts

Thrashing

(Answer: a and b)

____________________ is a phenomenon in a virtual memory system where an excessive amount of page swapping back and forth between main memory and secondary storage results in higher overhead and little useful work.
Thrashing
Which of the following memory management schemes solved internal fragmentation?
a. Paged memory allocation
b. Fixed partition
c. Segmented memory allocation
d. None of the above
Segmented memory allocation
Answer: c
Which of the following concepts is best at preventing page faults?
a. Paging
b. The working set
c. Hit ratios
d. Address location resolution
The working set
Answer: b
____________________ is a small high-speed memory unit that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory.
Cache memory
Which of the following are the functions of a Process Scheduler? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Initiates the job based on certain criteria
b. Decides when processing should be interrupted
c. Puts jobs in a sequence such that they use all system resources as fully as possible
d. Determines which queues the job should be moved to during its execution
Decides when processing should be interrupted

Determines which queues the job should be moved to during its execution

(Answer: b and d)

The total effect of all CPU cycles, from both I/O-bound and CPU-bound jobs, approximates which of the following distribution curves?
a. Gaussian distribution
b. Poisson distribution
c. Lorentzian Distribution
d. Random Distribution
Poisson distribution
(Answer: b)
The ____________________ contains all of the data about the job needed by the operating system to manage the processing of the job.
Process Control Block
Which of the following are preemptive scheduling algorithms? (Choose all that apply.)
a. FCFS
b. SRT
c. SJN
d. Round robin
SRT
Round robin

(Answer: b and d)

Which of the following algorithms employ the concept of a time quantum that is given to each job to ensure that the CPU is equally shared among all active processes?
a. SRT
b. SJN
c. Round robin
d. Priority scheduling
Round Robin
(Answer: c)
The control program that handles the interruption sequence of events is called the ____________________.
interrupt handler
Which of the following conditions results from the liberal allocation of resources?
a. Starvation
b. Deadlock
c. Increased efficiency
d. Request for more memory
Deadlock

Answer: b

Which of the following conditions are necessary for deadlock to occur? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Mutual exclusion
b. Preemption
c. Circular wait
d. Process holding
Mutual exclusion
Circular wait

Answer: a and c

____________________ is the act of allowing only one process to have access to a dedicated resource.
Mutual exclusion
In directed graphs, a solid arrow from a resource to process represents which of the following?
a. Process is holding the resource
b. Process is waiting for the resource
c. Deadlock
d. Starvation
Process is holding the resource
Answer: a
Which of the following strategies for handling deadlocks is illustrated using the Banker’s algorithm?
a. Prevention
b. Avoidance
c. Detection
d. Recovery
Avoidance
Answer: b
Which of the following methods are used for recovery? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Terminate every job that is active in the system and restart them from the beginning
b. Allow new jobs to enter the system
c. Terminate only the jobs involved in the deadlock and ask their users to resubmit them
d. Select a nondeadlocked job, preempt the resources it is holding, and allocate them to a deadlocked process
Answer: a, c, and d
Terminate every job that is active in the system and restart them from the beginning

Terminate only the jobs involved in the deadlock and ask their users to resubmit them

Select a nondeadlocked job, preempt the resources it is holding, and allocate them to a deadlocked process

Answer: a, c, and d

Which of the following multiprocessing configurations is least reliable?
a. Master/slave
b. Loosely coupled
c. Tightly coupled
d. Symmetric
Master/slave

Answer: a

Which of the following conditions of semaphore variable “s” implies a busy critical region?
a. s>0
b. s<0 c. s=0 d. s>1
c. s=0

Answer: c

The common element in all synchronization schemes is to allow a process to finish work on a(n) ____________________ of the program before other processes have access to it.
critical region
Which of the following conditions is enforced by using P and V operations on semaphores?
a. No preemption
b. Resource holding
c. Mutual exclusion
d. Starvation
Mutual exclusion

Answer: c

Which of the following truly describes threads? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Increases overhead
b. Each active thread in a process does not possess its own processor registers, program counter, stack and status
c. A smaller unit within a process, which can be scheduled and executed
d. Each active thread shares data area and the resources allocated to its process
A smaller unit within a process, which can be scheduled and executed

Each active thread shares data area and the resources allocated to its process

Answer: c and d

____________________ is a type of concurrent programming where the compiler automatically detects which instructions can be performed in parallel.
Implicit parallelism
Which of the following are direct access storage devices? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Punch cards
b. Fixed-head magnetic disk storage
c. Magnetic tape
d. Magneto-optical (MO) disc
Fixed-head magnetic disk storage

Magneto-optical (MO) disc

Answer: b and d

Which of the following storage devices uses phase change technology to write data?
a. Magneto-optical (MO) disc
b. CD-R discs
c. CD-RW discs
d. Magnetic disks
CD-RW discs
Answer: c
____________________, also known as rotational delay, is the time it takes to rotate the DASD until the requested record is moved under the read/write head.
Search time
Which of the following components performs the actual transfer of data and processes the device interrupts?
a. I/O traffic controller
b. I/O device handler
c. I/O scheduler
d. I/O traffic handler
I/O device handler

Answer: b

Which of the following strategies uses a directional bit to indicate whether the arm is moving toward the center of the disk or away from it?
a. FCFS
b. SSTF
c. SCAN
d. RAID
SCAN

Answer: c

The ____________________ is an algorithm that adds redundant bits to the data and is therefore able to correct single-bit errors and detect double-bit errors.
Hamming code
Which of the following is an embedded command?
a. Create
b. Delete
c. Copy
d. Open
Open

Answer: d

Which of the following information is contained in the volume descriptor? (Choose all that apply.)
a. Creation date
b. User’s name
c. File system code
d. Volume length
Creation date

File system code

Answer: a and c

Which of the following organization schemes uses a hashing algorithm?
a. Direct record organization
b. Sequential record organization
c. Indexed sequential record organization
d. Indexed direct record organization
Direct record organization

Answer: a

Which of the following storage allocation schemes results in the problem of fragmentation?
a. Contiguous storage
b. Noncontiguous storage
c. Indexed storage
d. Direct storage
Contiguous storage

Answer: a

Which of the following methods can control access to files as well as to devices?
a. Capability list
b. Access control list
c. Access control matrix
d. All of the above
Capability list

Answer: a

Which of the following data compression techniques compresses text, using symbols to represent most commonly used words?
a. Records with repeated characters
b. Repeated terms
c. Front-end compression
d. All of the above
Repeated terms

Answer: b