ISM CH.8

integration
allows separate systems to communicate directly with each other, eliminating the need for manual entry into multiple
application integration
the integration of a company’s existing management information systems
data integration
the integration of data from multiple sources, which provides a unified view of all data
forward integration
sends information entered into a given system automatically to all downstream systems and processes
backward integration
sends all information entered into a given system automatically to all upstream systems and processes
4 types of integration
1. application
2.data
3.forward
4.backward
enterprise system
provide enterprise wide support and data access firms operations and business processes
enterprise application integration(EAI)
connects the plans, methods, and tools aimed at integrating separate enterprise systems
middleware
several different types of software that sit between and provide connectivity for two or more software applications
EAI middleware
takes a new approach to middleware by packaging commonly used applications together, reducing the time needed to integrate applications from multiple vendors
5 basic supply chain activities
1.plan
2. source
3. make
4.deliver
5.return
Plan
prepare to manage all resources required to meet demand
source
build relationships with suppliers to procure raw materials
make
manufacture products and create production schedules
deliver
plan for transportation of goods to customers
return
support customers and product returns
supply chain management(SCM)
the management of information flows between and among activities in a supply chain to maximize total supply chain effectiveness and profitability
3 main supply chain management links
1. materials flow from suppliers and their “upstream” suppliers at all levels
2. transformation of materials into semi-finished and finished products through the organization’s own production process
3. distribution of products to customers and their “downstream” customers at all levels
supply chain event management(SCEM)
type of business software for managing events that occur within and between organizations or supply chain partners
supply chain visibility
the ability to view all areas up and down the supply chain in real time
bullwhip effect
occurs when distorted product-demand information ripples from one partner to the next throughout the supply chain
3 technologies reinventing the supply chain
1. procurement
2.logistics
3. materials management
procurement
the purchasing of goods and services to meet the needs of the supply chain
logistics
includes the processes that control the distribution, maintenance, and replacement of materials and personnel to support the supply chain
materials management
activities that govern the flow of tangible, physical materials through the supply chain such as shipping, transport, distribution, and warehousing
customer relationship management(CRM)
involves managing all aspects of a customer’s relationship with an organization to increase customer loyalty and retention and an organization’s profitability
RFM
Recency, frequency, monetary value
-How recently a customer purchased items
-how frequently a customer purchased items
-the monetary value of each customer purchase
contact management
maintains customer contact information and identifies prospective customers for future sales
operational CRM
supports traditional transactional processing for day-to-day front-office operations or systems that deal directly with the customers
marketing op. CRM
companies are not trying to sell 1 product to multiple customers, they are trying to sell multiple products to 1 customer.

list generator, campaign management, cross-selling, and up-selling

sales op. CRM
the first to begin developing CRM systems with sales force automation.

sales management, contact management, opportunity management

sales force automation
a system that automatically tracks all of the steps in the sales process
customer service op. CRM
contact center, web-based self service, call scripting
analytical CRM
supports back-office operations and strategic analysis and includes all systems that do not deal directly with the customer
website personalization
occurs when a website has stored enough data about a person’s likes and dislikes to fashion offers more likely to appeal to that person
customer segmentation
divides a market into categories that share similar attributes such as age, location, gender, and habits.
enterprise resource planning(ERP)
integrates all departments and functions throughout an organization into a single IT system so that employees can make enterprise wide decisions by viewing enterprise wide information on all business operations
reasons ERP systems are powerful tools
1. ERP is a logical solution to incompatible applications
2. ERP addresses global information sharing and reporting
3. ERP avoids the pain and expense of fixing legacy systems
core ERP component
traditional components included in most ERP systems and they primarily focus on internal operations
accounting and finance ERP component
manages accounting data and financial processes within the enterprise with functions such as general ledger, accts. payable, accts. receivable, budgeting, and asset management
production and materials management ERP component
handles the various aspects of production planning and execution such as demand forecasting, production scheduling, job cost accounting, and quality control
human resource ERP component
tracks employee information including payroll, benefits, compensation, performance assessment, and assumes compliance with the legal requirements of multiple jurisdictions and tax authorities
extended ERP component
extra components that meet the organizational needs not covered by the core components and primarily focus on external operations.
business intelligence
collect information used throughout the organization; organize it, and apply analytical tools to assist managers with decisions