IS-230d. Fundamentals of Emergency Management (LESSON 1 – Emergency Management Overview)

What Is Emergency Management?
The managerial function charged with creating the framework within which communities reduce vulnerability to threats/hazards and cope with disasters.
What are goals of emergency management?
The overall goals of emergency management at all levels are:
-First, to reduce the loss of life;
-Then, to minimize property loss and damage to the environment;
-And finally, to protect the jurisdiction from all threats and hazards.
Why is there a need for emergency management?
-Threats and hazards exist—always have and always will.

-Experience and empirical observation indicate that disaster events have a significant impact on humans and the environment.

-Success in dealing with disasters depends primarily on how well prepared, organized, and coordinated we are.

-Experience has shown that emergency management principles and practices actually work to achieve successful outcomes.

What is Integrated Management?
Integrated emergency management is a key concept adopted by emergency managers in the early 1980s. It embodies an all-threats/hazards approach to the direction, control, and coordination of disasters regardless of their location, size, or complexity, and it goes hand-in-hand with the concept of whole community preparedness.

Integrated emergency management is more than a methodology; it is a culture to achieve unity of effort—a way of thinking about emergency management as a joint enterprise. It is intended to create an organizational culture that is critical to achieving unity of effort between government, members of the community, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector.

Emergency management must be integrated into daily decisions, not just during times of disasters.

Why use an Integrated Management Approach?
Integrated emergency management increases emergency management capability by establishing:
-Prior networks, linkages, and partnerships.
-Communication across organizational and jurisdictional boundaries, enabling all emergency functions to communicate with each other.
-Creative thinking about resource shortfalls.
-Coordinated testing, training, and exercising.
-Improved ability to see the “big picture” for simultaneous responses.
What are Emergency Management Principles?
Comprehensive – Emergency managers consider and take into account all threats/hazards, all phases, all stakeholders, and all impacts relevant to disasters.

Progressive – Emergency managers anticipate future disasters and take protective, preventive, and preparatory measures to build disaster-resistant and disaster-resilient communities.

Risk-Driven – Emergency managers use sound risk management principles (threat/hazard identification, risk analysis, and impact analysis) in assigning priorities and resources.

Integrated – Emergency managers ensure unity of effort among all levels of government and all elements of a community.

Collaborative – Emergency managers create and sustain broad and sincere relationships among individuals and organizations to encourage trust, advocate a team atmosphere, build consensus, and facilitate communication.

Coordinated – Emergency managers synchronize the activities of all relevant stakeholders to achieve a common purpose.

Flexible – Emergency managers use creative and innovative approaches in solving disaster challenges.

Professional – Emergency managers value a science- and knowledge-based approach based on education, training, experience, ethical practice, public stewardship, and continuous improvement.

History of emergency management in the US
Congressional Act of 1803-earliest effort to provide disaster relief on a Federal level after a fire devastated a New Hampshire town. From that point forward, assorted legislation provided disaster support. Between 1803 and 1950, the Federal Government intervened in approximately 100 incidents (earthquakes, fires, floods, and tornadoes).

Defense Production Act of 1950-first comprehensive legislation pertaining to Federal disaster relief. The Disaster Relief Act of 1950 gave the President authority to issue disaster declarations that allowed Federal agencies to provide direct assistance to State and local governments. The Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950 created a nationwide system of civil defense agencies, and defense drills became routine in schools, government agencies, and other organizations.

Executive Order 10427 (1952) -emphasized that Federal disaster assistance was intended to supplement, not supplant, the resources of State, local, and private-sector organizations. This role is still the same today.

Modern Emergency Management #1: Executive Order 12127 (1979)
Executive Order 12127 (1979) – merged many of separate disaster-related responsibilities into a new Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA was created to:
-Coordinate Federal emergency authorities, including the administration of disaster response and recovery programs.
-Assume the role of the Federal Disaster Assistance Administration and assume responsibilities from the Federal Preparedness Agency, the Defense Civil Preparedness Agency, the Federal Insurance Administration, the Office of Emergency Preparedness, and the U.S. Fire Administration.
Modern Emergency Management #2: Stafford Act
The Stafford Act – the centerpiece legislation which:
-Provides a system of emergency preparedness for the protection of life and property from hazards.
-Vests responsibility for emergency preparedness jointly in the Federal Government, State and tribal governments, and their political subdivisions.
-Gives FEMA responsibility for coordinating Federal Government response.
Under the Stafford Act, assistance is limited to:
-Natural catastrophes (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or,
-Regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion.
The Stafford Act is designed to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, tribes, local governments, and disaster relief organizations.

Under the Stafford Act, the President can designate an incident as either an “emergency” or a “major disaster.” Both authorize the Federal Government to provide essential assistance to meet immediate threats to life and property, as well as additional disaster relief assistance.

Modern Emergency Management #3: Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006
The Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 (PKEMRA) provided important provisions, including the key principle that after a major disaster or emergency declaration accelerated Federal assistance could be sent by FEMA, in the absence of a specific request by a State, to save lives and prevent suffering. Among its important provisions, PKEMRA:
##Requires the development of pre-scripted mission assignments as part of the planning efforts for Emergency Support Function (ESF) response efforts.
##Transfers to FEMA various preparedness functions formerly contained within DHS.
##Employs the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and the National Response Framework (NRF) as the framework for emergency response and domestic incident management.
##Requires the development of comprehensive plans to respond to catastrophic incidents to include clear standardization, guidance, and assistance to ensure common terminology, approach, and framework for all strategic and operational planning.
##Directs the development of a National Disaster Recovery Strategy and National Disaster Housing Strategy.
##Amends the Stafford Act to direct FEMA to appoint a Disability Coordinator to ensure that the needs of individuals with disabilities are addressed in emergency preparedness and disaster relief.
##Requires an annual report to Congress on all Federal planning and preparedness efforts.
##Adds protection for household pets and service animals.
Modern Emergency Management #4: Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013
The Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013 (P.L. 113-2) authorizes several significant changes to the way FEMA may deliver disaster assistance under a variety of programs. Key changes relate to the following:
##Public Assistance:
####Authorizing alternative procedures for the Public Assistance (PA) Program.
####Reviewing and evaluating the Public Assistance small project threshold.
####Establishing a nationwide dispute resolution pilot program for Public Assistance projects.

##Hazard Mitigation: Streamlining the Hazard Mitigation Grant Program (HMGP).
##Disaster Cost Reduction: Developing a national strategy to reduce costs on future disasters
##Individual Assistance:
####Revising the factors considered when evaluating the need for the Individual Assistance Program in a major disaster or emergency.
####Authorizing the lease and repair of rental units for use as direct temporary housing.
##Unified Federal Review: Establishing a unified and expedited interagency environmental and historic preservation process for disaster recovery projects.
##Essential Assistance: Authorizing changes in the way certain government employees are reimbursed for performing emergency protective measures.
##Tribal Requests for a Major Disaster or Emergency Declaration: Amending the Stafford Act to allow the Chief Executive of a federally recognized Indian tribe to make a direct request to the President for a major disaster or emergency declaration. Tribes may elect to receive assistance under a State’s declaration, provided that the President does not make a declaration for the tribe for the same incident. The Act also:
####Authorizes the President to establish criteria to adjust the non-federal cost share for an Indian tribal government consistent to the extent allowed by current authorities.
####Requires FEMA to consider the unique circumstances of tribes when it develops regulations to implement the provision.
####Amends the Stafford Act to include federally recognized Indian tribal governments in numerous references to State and local governments within the Stafford Act.

The Stafford Act
The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (Public Law 100-707) created the system in place today by which a Presidential disaster declaration triggers financial and physical assistance through FEMA. The Stafford Act:
##Covers all hazards, including natural disasters and terrorist events.
##Provides primary authority for the Federal Government to respond to disasters and emergencies.
##Gives FEMA responsibility for coordinating Government response efforts. The President’s authority is delegated to FEMA through separate mechanisms.
##Describes the programs and processes by which the Federal Government provides disaster and emergency assistance to State and local governments, tribal nations, eligible private nonprofit organizations, and individuals affected by a declared major disaster or emergency.
Stafford Act Emergencies and Major Disasters
In certain circumstances, the President may declare an “emergency” unilaterally, but may only declare a “major disaster” at the request of a Governor or tribal Chief Executive who certifies the State or tribal government and affected local governments are overwhelmed.

Emergency: Any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the President, Federal assistance is needed to supplement State, tribal, and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States. A variety of incidents may qualify as emergencies. The Federal assistance available for emergencies is more limited than that which is available for a major disaster.

Major Disaster: Any natural catastrophe (including any hurricane, tornado, storm, high water, wind-driven water, tidal wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm, or drought), or, regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion, in any part of the United States, which in the determination of the President causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster assistance under this chapter to supplement the efforts and available resources of States, tribal governments, local governments, and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby.

Major disasters may be caused by such natural events as floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes. Disasters may include fires, floods, or explosions that the President feels are of sufficient magnitude to warrant Federal assistance. Although the types of incidents that may qualify as a major disaster are limited, the Federal assistance available for major disasters is broader than that available for emergencies.

Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act
Hurricane Katrina in August 2005 was the most devastating natural disaster in U.S. history. Gaps that became apparent in the response to that disaster led to the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 (PKEMRA). PKEMRA significantly reorganized FEMA, provided it substantial new authority to remedy gaps in response, and included a more robust preparedness mission for FEMA. This act:
##Establishes a Disability Coordinator and develops guidelines to accommodate individuals with disabilities.
##Establishes the National Emergency Family Registry and Locator System to reunify separated family members.
##Coordinates and supports precautionary evacuations and recovery efforts.
##Provides transportation assistance for relocating and returning individuals displaced from their residences in a major disaster.
##Provides case management assistance to identify and address unmet needs of survivors of major disasters.
Emergency Management: Evolving Doctrine
Presidential Policy Directive 8, or PPD-8, describes the Nation’s approach to national preparedness. The National Preparedness Goal is the cornerstone for that approach. The Goal identifies the Nation’s core capabilities required for executing the five mission areas of Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery.

The National Preparedness System is an integrated set of guidance, programs, and processes that enable us to work together to achieve the National Preparedness Goal.

As a Nation, we are most prepared to face threats and hazards when we work together. The National Preparedness System provides the approach, resources, and tools for us to work together toward achieving our goal of a secure and resilient Nation.

Presidential Policy Directive 8
Preparedness requires the commitment of our entire Nation. Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD-8) describes the Nation’s approach to preparedness—one that involves the whole community, including individuals, businesses, community- and faith-based organizations, schools, tribes, and all levels of government.

PPD-8 links together national preparedness efforts using the following key elements:
##National Preparedness Goal
##National Preparedness System
##Whole Community Initiative
##Annual National Preparedness Report

National Preparedness Goal
The National Preparedness Goal presents an integrated, layered, and all-of-Nation approach to preparedness.

Successful achievement of this Goal will result in a secure and resilient Nation with the capabilities required across the whole community to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and recover from the threats and hazards that pose the greatest risk.

National Preparedness Goal: Capabilities and Mission Areas
The emphasis of the National Preparedness Goal is on building and sustaining core capabilities across five distinct mission areas: Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery.
Prevention Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Planning

Conduct a systematic process engaging the whole community as appropriate in the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or community-based approaches to meet defined objectives.
Prevention Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Public Information and Warning

Deliver coordinated, prompt, reliable, and actionable information to the whole community through the use of clear, consistent, accessible, and culturally and linguistically appropriate methods to effectively relay information regarding any threat or hazard, as well as the actions being taken and the assistance being made available, as appropriate.
Prevention Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Operational Coordination

Establish and maintain a unified and coordinated operational structure and process that appropriately integrates all critical stakeholders and supports the execution of core capabilities.
Prevention Mission Area Core Capabilities: Forensics and Attribution
Conduct forensic analysis and attribute terrorist acts (including the means and methods of terrorism) to their source, to include forensic analysis as well as attribution for an attack and for the preparation for an attack in an effort to prevent initial or follow-on acts and/or swiftly develop counter-options.
Prevention Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Intelligence and Information Sharing

Provide timely, accurate, and actionable information resulting from the planning, direction, collection, exploitation, processing, analysis, production, dissemination, evaluation, and feedback of available information concerning threats to the United States, its people, property, or interests; the development, proliferation, or use of WMDs; or any other matter bearing on U.S. national or homeland security by Federal, State, local, and other stakeholders. Information sharing is the ability to exchange intelligence, information, data, or knowledge among Federal, State, local, or private sector entities, as appropriate.
Prevention Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Interdiction and Disruption

Delay, divert, intercept, halt, apprehend, or secure threats and/or hazards.
Prevention Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Screening, Search, and Detection

Identify, discover, or locate threats and/or hazards through active and passive surveillance and search procedures. This may include the use of systematic examinations and assessments, sensor technologies, or physical investigation and intelligence.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Planning

Conduct a systematic process engaging the whole community, as appropriate, in the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or community-based approaches to meet defined objectives.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Public Information and Warning

Deliver coordinated, prompt, reliable, and actionable information to the whole community through the use of clear, consistent, accessible, and culturally and linguistically appropriate methods to effectively relay information regarding any threat or hazard and, as appropriate, the actions being taken and the assistance being made available.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Operational Coordination

Establish and maintain a unified and coordinated operational structure and process that appropriately integrates all critical stakeholders and supports the execution of core capabilities.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Access Control and Identity Verification

Apply a broad range of physical, technological, and cyber measures to control admittance to critical locations and systems, limiting access to authorized individuals to carry out legitimate activities.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Cybersecurity

Protect against damage to, the unauthorized use of, and/or the exploitation of (and, if needed, the restoration of) electronic communications systems and services (and the information contained therein).
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Intelligence and Information Sharing

Provide timely, accurate, and actionable information resulting from the planning, direction, collection, exploitation, processing, analysis, production, dissemination, evaluation, and feedback of available information concerning threats to the United States, its people, property, or interests; the development, proliferation, or use of WMDs; or any other matter bearing on U.S. national or homeland security by Federal, State, local, and other stakeholders. Information sharing is the ability to exchange intelligence, information, data, or knowledge among Federal, State, local, or private sector entities as appropriate.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Interdiction and Disruption

Delay, divert, intercept, halt, apprehend, or secure threats and/or hazards.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Physical Protective Measures

Reduce or mitigate risks, including actions targeted at threats, vulnerabilities, and/or consequences, by controlling movement and protecting borders, critical infrastructure, and the homeland.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Risk Management for Protection Programs and Activities

Identify, assess, and prioritize risks to inform Protection activities and investments.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Screening, Search, and Detection

Identify, discover, or locate threats and/or hazards through active and passive surveillance and search procedures. This may include the use of systematic examinations and assessments, sensor technologies, or physical investigation and intelligence.
Protection Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Supply Chain Integrity and Security

Strengthen the security and resilience of the supply chain.
Mitigation Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Planning

Conduct a systematic process engaging the whole community as appropriate in the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or community-based approaches to meet defined objectives.
Mitigation Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Public Information and Warning

Deliver coordinated, prompt, reliable, and actionable information to the whole community through the use of clear, consistent, accessible, and culturally and linguistically appropriate methods to effectively relay information regarding any threat or hazard and, as appropriate, the actions being taken and the assistance being made available.
Mitigation Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Operational Coordination

Establish and maintain a unified and coordinated operational structure and process that appropriately integrates all critical stakeholders and supports the execution of core capabilities.
Mitigation Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Community Resilience

Lead the integrated effort to recognize, understand, communicate, plan, and address risks so that the community can develop a set of actions to accomplish Mitigation and improve resilience.
Mitigation Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Long-Term Vulnerability Reduction

Build and sustain resilient systems, communities, and critical infrastructure and key resources lifelines so as to reduce their vulnerability to natural, technological, and human-caused incidents by lessening the likelihood, severity, and duration of the adverse consequences related to these incidents.
Mitigation Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Risk and Disaster Resilience Assessment

Assess risk and disaster resilience so that decision makers, responders, and community members can take informed action to reduce their entity’s risk and increase their resilience.
Mitigation Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Threats and Hazard Identification

Identify the threats and hazards that occur in the geographic area; determine the frequency and magnitude; and incorporate this into analysis and planning processes so as to clearly understand the needs of a community or entity.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Planning

Conduct a systematic process engaging the whole community as appropriate in the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or community-based approaches to meet defined objectives.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Public Information and Warning

Deliver coordinated, prompt, reliable, and actionable information to the whole community through the use of clear, consistent, accessible, and culturally and linguistically appropriate methods to effectively relay information regarding any threat or hazard and, as appropriate, the actions being taken and the assistance being made available.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Operational Coordination

Establish and maintain a unified and coordinated operational structure and process that appropriately integrates all critical stakeholders and supports the execution of core capabilities.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Critical Transportation

Provide transportation (including infrastructure access and accessible transportation services) for response priority objectives, including the evacuation of people and animals, and the delivery of vital response personnel, equipment, and services into the affected areas.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Environmental Response/Health and Safety

Ensure the availability of guidance and resources to address all hazards including hazardous materials, acts of terrorism, and natural disasters in support of the responder operations and the affected communities.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Fatality Management Services

Provide fatality management services, including body recovery and victim identification, working with State and local authorities to provide temporary mortuary solutions, sharing information with mass care services for the purpose of reunifying family members and caregivers with missing persons/remains, and providing counseling to the bereaved.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Infrastructure Systems

Stabilize critical infrastructure functions, minimize health and safety threats, and efficiently restore and revitalize systems and services to support a viable, resilient community.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Mass Care Services

Provide life-sustaining services to the affected population with a focus on hydration, feeding, and sheltering to those who have the most need, as well as support for reunifying families.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Mass Search and Rescue Operations

Deliver traditional and atypical search and rescue capabilities, including personnel, services, animals, and assets to survivors in need, with the goal of saving the greatest number of endangered lives in the shortest time possible.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

On-Scene Security and Protection

Ensure a safe and secure environment through law enforcement and related security and protection operations for people and communities located within affected areas and also for all traditional and atypical response personnel engaged in lifesaving and life-sustaining operations.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Operational Communications

Ensure the capacity for timely communications in support of security, situational awareness, and operations by any and all means available, among and between affected communities in the impact area and all response forces.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Public and Private Services and Resources

Provide essential public and private services and resources to the affected population and surrounding communities, to include emergency power to critical facilities, fuel support for emergency responders, and access to community staples (e.g., grocery stores, pharmacies, and banks) and fire and other first response services.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Public Health and Medical Services

Provide lifesaving medical treatment via emergency medical services and related operations and avoid additional disease and injury by providing targeted public health and medical support and products to all people in need within the affected area.
Response Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Situational Assessment

Provide all decision makers with decision-relevant information regarding the nature and extent of the hazard, any cascading effects, and the status of the response.
Recovery Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Planning

Conduct a systematic process engaging the whole community as appropriate in the development of executable strategic, operational, and/or community-based approaches to meet defined objectives.
Recovery Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Public Information and Warning

Deliver coordinated, prompt, reliable, and actionable information to the whole community through the use of clear, consistent, accessible, and culturally and linguistically appropriate methods to effectively relay information regarding any threat or hazard and, as appropriate, the actions being taken and the assistance being made available.
Recovery Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Operational Coordination

Establish and maintain a unified and coordinated operational structure and process that appropriately integrates all critical stakeholders and supports the execution of core capabilities.
Recovery Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Economic Recovery

Return economic and business activities (including food and agriculture) to a healthy state and develop new business and employment opportunities that result in a sustainable and economically viable community.
Recovery Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Health and Social Services

Restore and improve health and social services networks to promote the resilience, independence, health (including behavioral health), and well-being of the whole community.
Recovery Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Housing

Implement housing solutions that effectively support the needs of the whole community and contribute to its sustainability and resilience.
Recovery Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Infrastructure Systems

Stabilize critical infrastructure functions, minimize health and safety threats, and efficiently restore and revitalize systems and services to support a viable, resilient community.
Recovery Mission Area Core Capabilities:

Natural and Cultural Resources

Protect natural and cultural resources and historic properties through appropriate planning, mitigation, response, and recovery actions to preserve, conserve, rehabilitate, and restore them consistent with post-disaster community priorities and best practices and in compliance with appropriate environmental and historical preservation laws and executive orders.
Mission Areas
Mission areas: Prevention, Protection, Mitigation, Response, and Recovery

Mission areas differ from phases of emergency management. Each area is comprised of the capabilities required for executing the mission or function at any time (before, during, or after an incident) and across all threats and hazards. It is important to shift your thinking to capabilities!

Prevention
The capabilities necessary to avoid, prevent, or stop a threatened or actual act of terrorism. As defined by PPD-8, the term “prevention” refers to preventing imminent threats.
Protection
The capabilities necessary to secure the homeland against acts of terrorism and manmade or natural disasters.
Mitigation
The capabilities necessary to reduce loss of life and property by lessening the impact of disasters.
Response
The capabilities necessary to save lives, protect property and the environment, and meet basic human needs after an incident has occurred.
Recovery
The capabilities necessary to assist communities affected by an incident to recover effectively.
What is the National Preparedness System?
The National Preparedness System is an integrated set of guidance, programs, and processes that enables the whole community to meet the National Preparedness Goal.
National Preparedness System:

Identifying and Assessing Risk

Developing and maintaining an understanding of the variety of risks faced by communities and the Nation, and how this information can be used to build and sustain preparedness, are essential components of the National Preparedness System. A risk assessment collects information regarding the threats and hazards, including the projected consequences or impacts.
National Preparedness System:

Estimating Capability Requirements

To fully understand capability requirements, each community, organization, and level of government must consider single threats or hazards as well as the full range of risks they may face. Using the results from a risk assessment in the context of the desired outcome(s) for each mission area, the required types and levels of capability can be estimated.
National Preparedness System:

Building and Sustaining Capabilities

After completing the estimation process, existing and needed capabilities can be analyzed and gaps
identified. These gaps can be prioritized based on a combination of the desired outcomes, risk
assessments, and the potential effects of not addressing the gaps.

Working together, planners, government officials, and elected leaders can develop strategies to
allocate resources effectively, as well as leverage available assistance to reduce risk. These strategies
consider how to both sustain current levels of capability and address gaps in order to achieve the
National Preparedness Goal.

National Preparedness System:

Planning to Deliver Capabilities

The whole community contributes to reducing the Nation’s risks. Planning for low-probability, high-consequence risks—such as a terrorist attack with nuclear or biological weapons or a catastrophic earthquake affecting multiple jurisdictions—will be a complex undertaking and involve many partners. Federal efforts, therefore, must complement planning at other levels of government, which is often focused on more likely risks. These shared planning efforts form a National Planning System by which the whole community can think through potential crises, determine capability requirements, and address the collective risk identified during the risk assessment process.
National Preparedness System:

Validating Capabilities

Measuring progress toward achieving the National Preparedness Goal will provide the means to decide how and where to allocate scarce resources and prioritize preparedness. This validation process can be done through exercises, remedial action management programs, and assessments.
National Preparedness System:

Reviewing and Updating

The Nation’s security and resilience will be strengthened as it employs the components of the National Preparedness System. Changes in a community’s exposure and sensitivity can and do occur, however, whether from evolving threats and hazards, aging infrastructure, shifts in population, or changes in the natural environment. On a recurring basis, capabilities, resources, and plans should be reviewed to determine if they remain relevant or need to be updated.
National Planning Frameworks
Within the National Preparedness System is the National Planning System, which includes a national planning framework for each mission area. Each framework contains succinct, high-level descriptions of the coordinating structures necessary to:
-Deliver the core capabilities from that mission area, and
-Support the delivery of core capabilities from the other mission areas.
Leveraging the Whole Community
Effective emergency management means finding, connecting to, and strengthening community resources by leveraging the expertise and capacity of:
##Individuals and households.
##Private and nonprofit sectors.
##Community entities, including advocacy and faith-based organizations.
##All levels of government.
National Incident Management System (NIMS)
NIMS represents a core set of doctrines, concepts, principles, terminology, and organizational processes that enable effective, efficient, and collaborative incident management.

NIMS integrates smart practices into a comprehensive framework for use nationwide by emergency management/response personnel in an all-hazards context. These smart practices lay the groundwork for the components of NIMS and provide the mechanisms for the further development and refinement of supporting national standards, guidelines, protocols, systems, and technologies.

NIMS fosters the development of specialized technologies that facilitate emergency management and incident response activities, and allows for the adoption of new approaches that will enable continuous refinement of the system over time.

National Incident Management System (NIMS):

Preparedness

Effective emergency management and incident response activities begin with a host of preparedness activities conducted on an ongoing basis, in advance of any potential incident. Preparedness involves an integrated combination of assessment; planning; procedures and protocols; training and exercises; personnel qualifications, licensure, and certification; equipment certification; and evaluation and revision.
National Incident Management System (NIMS):

Communications and Information Management

Emergency management and incident response activities rely on communications and information systems that provide a common operating picture to all command and coordination sites. NIMS describes the requirements necessary for a standardized framework for communications and emphasizes the need for a common operating picture. This component is based on the concepts of interoperability, reliability, scalability, and portability, as well as the resiliency and redundancy of communications and information systems.
National Incident Management System (NIMS):

Resource Management

Resources (such as personnel, equipment, or supplies) are needed to support critical incident objectives. The flow of resources must be fluid and adaptable to the requirements of the incident. NIMS defines standardized mechanisms and establishes the resource management process to identify requirements, order and acquire, mobilize, track and report, recover and demobilize, reimburse, and inventory resources.
National Incident Management System (NIMS):

Command and Management

The Command and Management component of NIMS is designed to enable effective and efficient incident management and coordination by providing a flexible, standardized incident management structure. The structure is based on three key organizational constructs: the Incident Command System, Multiagency Coordination Systems, and Public Information.
National Incident Management System (NIMS):

Ongoing Management and Maintenance

Within the auspices of Ongoing Management and Maintenance, there are two components: the National Integration Center (NIC) and Supporting Technologies.
Emergency Management Programs and Standards
In support of the National Preparedness Goal, two programs for government and private-sector accreditation are available.
##The Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP) is a standard-based voluntary assessment and accreditation process for government programs.
##The Voluntary Private Sector Preparedness Accreditation and Certification Program (PS-Prep™) is a voluntary program primarily serving as a resource for private and nonprofit entities.
Emergency Management Accreditation Program (EMAP)
EMAP provides States, territories, and local government emergency management programs with a voluntary accreditation process that is intended to encourage examination of strengths and weaknesses, pursuit of corrective measures, and communication and planning among different sectors of government and the community.

EMAP builds on standards and assessment work by various organizations, adding requirements for documentation and verification that neither standards nor self -assessment alone can provide.

Emergency Management Standards
##Program Management
##Administration and Finance
##Laws and Authorities
##Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment, and Consequence Analysis
##Hazard Mitigation
##Prevention and Security
##Planning
##Incident Management
##Resource Management and Logistics
##Mutual Aid
##Communications and Warning
##Operations and Procedures
##Facilities
##Training
##Exercises, Evaluations, and Corrective Action
##Crisis Communications, Public Education, and Information
PS-Prep™
PS-Prep is a voluntary program primarily serving as a resource for private and nonprofit entities interested in instituting a comprehensive business continuity management system.

PS-Prep is the result of Public Law 110-53, Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act, and is intended to improve the preparedness of private-sector and nonprofit organizations. PS-Prep adopts the following three preparedness standards:

ASIS International
The ASIS International Organizational Resilience Standard includes requirements for:
##General Requirements
##Organizational Resilience Management Policy
##Planning
##Implementation and Operation
##Checking (Evaluation)
##Management Review
British Standards Institution (BSI)
The BSI has established the first British standard for business continuity management. It includes two parts: the Code of Practice and the Specification.
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
The NFPA Standards Council established the Disaster Management Committee in January 1991. The committee was given the responsibility for developing documents relating to preparedness for, response to, and recovery from disasters resulting from natural, human, or technological events.

The 2013 standards address:
##Program Management: ##Leadership and Commitment
##Program Coordinator
##Program Committee
##Program Administration
##Laws and Authorities
##Finance and Administration
##Records Management

##Planning: ##Planning and Design Process
##Risk Assessment
##Business Impact Analysis
##Resource Needs Assessment
##Performance Objectives

##Implementation: ##Common Plan Requirements
##Prevention
##Mitigation
##Crisis Communications and Public Information
##Warning, Notifications, and Communications
##Operational Procedures
##Incident Management
##Emergency Operations/Response Plan
##Business Continuity and Recovery
##Employee Assistance and Support

##Training and Education: ##Curriculum
##Goal of Curriculum
##Scope and Frequency of Instruction
##Incident Management System Training
##Recordkeeping
##Regulatory and Program Requirements
##Public Education

##Exercises and Tests: ##Program Evaluation
##Exercise and Test Methodology
##Design of Exercises and Tests
##Exercise and Test Evaluation
##Frequency

##Program Maintenance and Improvement: ##Program Reviews
##Corrective Action
## Continuous Improvement

Lesson Summary
The foundation of an integrated management system is the authorities, guidance, policies, principles, and programs presented in this lesson. The key is to engage the whole community to build and sustain capabilities by:
##Contributing to achievement of the National Preparedness Goal by assessing and preparing for the most relevant and urgent risks.
##Establishing an emergency management program based on the emergency management principles.
##Using the guidance provided by the National Preparedness System and NIMS to build capabilities.