Introduction to Emergency Management Chapters 1-7 Vocabulary

Disaster
An event that produces greater losses than a community can handle including casualties, property, damage, and significant environmental damage
Emergency
A minor event that can cause a few casualties and a limited amount of property damage or an imminent event that requires prompt and effective action
Emergency Response
A hazard management strategy that has the goal of protecting the population, limiting damage from the impact of an event, and minimizing damage from secondary impact
Hazard
A source of danger and have the potential to affect people’s health and safety, their property, and the natural environment
Hazard Mitigation
A hazard management strategy that takes place before disasters strike that addresses the causes of a disaster, reducing the likelihood it will occur or limiting its impackt
Natural Disaster
An event that occurs in nature that results in casualties, property damage , environmental damage including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, and wildland fires
Recovery
A hazard management strategy that has the goal of restoring the normal functioning of a community. This begins as a disaster is ending and continues until the community is back to normal
Secondary Impacts
Disasters caused by a disaster, including events such as hazardous materials releases caused by earthquakes
Technological Disasters
Events that result from the accidental failures of technologies, such as the release of hazardous material from facilities where they are normally contained.
Terrorist Disaster
A deliberate attack that is intended to achieve political objectives by inflicting damage and casualties
Business Interruption
The loss of revenue due to disruption of a business’s normal production of goods and services in exchange for money
Capacity
A measurement of an organization’s ability to implement policy that includes budget allocations, staffing levels, and staff member’s knowledge and skills
Community Emergency Response Teams (CERT)
Homeowners organized as groups to perform emergency management tasks in their neighborhood. They organize and train neighborhood volunteers to perform basic emergency response tasks, such as search and rescue and first aid
Economic Groups
Business stakeholders that organize the flow of goods and services and who are affected anytime there is an interruption to business caused by a disaster
Expert power
Power that is based on someone;s expertise on a particular topic
Focusing event
An natural or technological disaster that draws public attention to the need for local disaster planning and hazard mitigation
Governmental groups
Stakeholders who are part of the government’s structure. The foundation of the government structure is the town or the city, followed by the county. The third level is the state. Cities and counties have varying levels of power from one state to another because states differ in the powers they grant. Most emergency management policies are set at the federal and state levels
Hazard adjustments
Actions that can reduce vulnerability to disasters. These include actions such as purchasing hazard insurance, living in safer locations, and renting or buying homes that are resistant to disaster.
Homeland Security Act (HSA)
An act signed in November 2002 that restructured emergency management by integrating many agencies having emergency- or security related functions into the Department of Homeland Security
Information power
Power that involves true, new, and relevant facts or arguments. this can be exercised by either introducing or withholding information
Legitimate power
Power that arises from one person’s relations to another and can come from a formal positions. Any official elected by fair voting process has this.
Referent power
Power that is based on a person’s desire that be like the power holder.
Reward and coercive power
Power frequently referred to as the “carrot and the stick” approach. Power can be produced deception to avoid punishment. Moreover, punishment typically produces continuing hostility
Social groups
Stakeholder that are primarily defined by households, who control a substantial amount of the assets (buildings and their contents) that are at risk from disasters. The also included neighborhoods, service, and environmental organizations
Stakeholder
Someone who has, or thinks they have, something to lose or gain in a situation. An emergency management _________ is affected by the decisions made (or not made) by emergency managers and policy makers.
Window of opportunity
Time during which local emergency managers are most likely to be able to influence policy. This opportunity usually opens immediately after a focusing event has drawn attention to hazard and closes after attention moves on to other public issues.
Budget Narrative
A document that accompanies that budge and includes a request for additional money. It is submitted in written format and can include graphics to explain items
Capability assessment
An evaluation of the degree to which your jurisdiction’s resources are sufficient to meet the disaster demands identified in the hazard vulnerability analysis
Capability shortfall
The difference between the level of resources a jurisdiction currently has and the level it will need to meet the disaster demands identified in the hazard vulnerability analysis
Contingency fund
A sum of money in the budget that addresses the costs of resources that will be needed in case of an emergency
Disaster subculture
Behavioral patterns among groups of residents who adopt routines to prepare for disasters. These groups have usually experienced disasters and have resolved to better prepare for them in the future
Local Emergency Management Committee (LEMC)
A disaster-planning network that increases coordination among local agencies
Multiyear Development Plan
A plan that documents the specific steps for reducing the capability shortfall. The development plan is typically based on five years and should identify specific annual milestones and specific, measurable achievements to keep emergency managers on target
Adaptive Plan
The answer to the question ” What is the best method of protection?” Those at risk generally have at least two options– taking protective action or continuing normal activities
Escalating Crisis
A situation in which there is a significantly increased probability of an incident occurring that will threaten the public’s health, safety or property
Information Need
A need that results from the question, “What information do I need to answer my questions?”
Information search plan
A plan that results from addressing the question, ” Where and how can I obtain this information?”
Protection motivation
A positive response to the questions of whether there will be personal consequences if disaster occurs
Risk
The possibility that people or property could be hurt. Defined in terms of the likelihood that an event will occur at a given location within a given time period and will inflict casualties and damage. This must be effectively communicated to the people who are likely to be affected
Risk assessment
an evaluation of what will be the personal consequences if the disaster occurs
Warning
A risk communication about an imminent event that is intended to produce an appropriate disaster response
100-year flood
An arbitrary standard of safety that reflects a compromise between the goals of providing long-term safety and developing economically valuable land
Apparent temperature
The combination of temperature and humidity into a heat index
Carcinogens committed
Chemicals that cause cancer. The fact that contamination by radioactive material on the skin or absorbed into the body will continue to administer a dose until it decays or is removed
Compressed gases
Gases that are cooled to a liquid state so they occupy a small enough volume to the transported at a reasonable economic cost
Core corrosives
Molten rock at the center of the earth. Substances that destroy living tissue at the point of contact because they are either acidic or alkaline
Crust
Solid rock and other materials at the earth’s surface that is defined by large plates floating on the mantle and moving gradually in different direction over time
Discharge
The volume of water passing a specific point per unity of time
Earthquake
A sudden release of energy that had been built up as two tectonic plates attempt to move past each other
Epicenter
A point on the earth’s surface directly above the hypocenter
Explosives
Compounds or mixtures that undergo a rapid chemical transformation that is faster than the speed of sound
Eye of the hurricane
The area of calm conditions that has a 10 to 20 mile radius. the eye is surrounded by bands of high wind and rain that spiral and form a ring around the eye
Eyewall
The spiral that forms a ring around the eve of a hurricane
Firestorms
Fires that are distinguished from other wildfires because they burn so intensely that they create their own local weather and are virtually impossible to extinguish
Flammable liquids
Liquids that evolve flammable vapors at 80 F or less thus posing a threat similar to flammable gases
Flammable solids
Solids that self-ignite though friction, absorption of moisture, or spontaneous chemical changes
Flood
An event in which abnormally large amount of water accumulates in an area in which it is usually not found
Gas
A substance that expands to fill the available volume in a space
Hardscape
Impermeable surfaces that expands to fill the available volume in a space
Hazmat
Hazardous materials that may prose unreasonable risk to heath, safety and property
Hurricane hypocenter
The most severe type of tropical storm
Intensity
The measure of energy release at a given impact location, which can be assessed either by behavioral effects or physical measuremts
Interface fires
Fire that burn into areas containing a mixture of natural vegetation and built structures
Landslide
The downward displacement of rock or soil because of gravitational forces
Liquid
A substance that spreads to cover the available areas on a surface
Magnitude
The measure of energy release at the source. Earthquake ____ is measured on the Richter scale where a one-unit increase represent a 10-fold increase in seismic wave amplitude and a 30-fold increase in energy release from the source
Mantle
An 1800 mile thick layer between the core and the crust
Miscellaneous dangerous good
A diverse set of materials such as air bags, certain vegetable oils, PCB, and while asbestos
Natural hazards
Extreme events that originate in nature, Commonly Categorized as meteorological, hydeological or geophysical
Oxidizers and organic peroxides
Chemicals that include halogens (chlorine and fluorine), peroxides (hydrogen peroxide and benzoyl peroxide), and hypochlorities. These chemicals destroy metals and organic substances and enhance the ignition of combustibles.
Radioactive materials
Substances that undergo spontaneous decay, emitting radiation in the process
Radionuclides
Radioactive substances that vary in atomic weight
Severe storms
A storm whose wind speed exceeds 58 ,[h, that produces a tornado, or that releases hail with a diameter of three-quarters of an inch or greater
Source term
The mix of chemicals or radionuclides involved in a given release
Stage
The height of water above a defined level that is used by emergency managers to predict the level of flood casualties and damage
Storm Surge
An increased height of a body of water that exceeds the normal tide
Technological hazards
Hazards that originated in human-controlled processes but are released in to the air and water. The most important hazards are explosives, flammable materials, toxic chemicals, radiological materials, and biological hazards
Tornadoes
Windstorms that form when cold air from the north collides with a warmer air mass
Tsunamis
Sea waves that are usually generated by undersea earthquakes. Can be caused by volcanic eruptions or landslides
Vapor
The molecules that are in a gaseous state of a substances that is a liquid at normal temperature and pressure
Volcanoes
Geological structures that transport a column of molten rock from the earth’s mantle to the surface
Wildland fires
Fires that burn areas with nothing but natural vegetation for fuel
Adverse selection
The tendency for hazard insurance to be purchased mostly by those who are the greatest risk of filing a claim for losses
Agricultural vulnerability
The vulnerabilities of all species of plants and animals
Emergency preparedness practices
Preimpact actions that provide the human and material resources needed to support active responses at the time of hazard impact
Hazard exposure
Living, working, or otherwise being in places that can affect by hazard impacts
Hazard mitigation practices
Actions that protect passively at the time of impact
Hazards US-Multi Hazard (HAZUS-MH)
A computer program that predicts losses from earthquakes, floods, hurricane winds. The program estimates casualties, damage and economic losses.
Human Vulnerability
People’s susceptibility to death, injury, or illness from extreme levels of environmental hazards
Multi Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment
A FEMA manual that describes exposures to many natural and technological hazards
Normalcy bias
People’s tendency to delay recognition that an improbable event is occurring and affecting them
North American Emergency Response Guidebook
A manual that lists the chemicals commonly foundation in transportation. It details which one of its 172 emergency response guides provides the information needed to respond to a spill. It also helps you to determine how far from the spill location to shelter in-place or evacuate residents
Physical vulnerability
Human, agricultural, or structural susceptibility to damage or injury from disasters
Social vulnerability
Lack of psychological, social, economic, and political resources to cope with disaster impacts
Structural vulnerability
The susceptibility of structure, such as a building to be damaged or destroyed by environmental events
Technical Guidance for Hazards Analysis
A guide that lists extremely hazardous substances and describes a simple method for calculating VZs
Vulnerable Zone (VZ)
The area surrounding a given source in which a chemical releases is likely to produce death, injury or illness
Capital Improvements Program (CIP)
A program used to plan community infrastructure and critical facilities
Channelization
The process of deepening and straightening stream channels
Dams
Elevated barriers sited across a streambed that increase surface storage of floodwater in reservoirs upstream from them
Elevating on continuous foundation walls
A method used to raise a house slightly higher than the base average project flood height, increasing the height of the basement walls and providing secure storage
Elevating on open foundations
A method used in which a structure’s foundation only supports the structure at critical points, allowing high velocity water flow and breaking waves to pass under the structure with minimal resistance
Eminent domain
Power held by the government that can force private owners to sell their property to the government at a fair market value if the property is to be used for a public purpose
Floodwalls
Water barriers that are build of strong materials such as concrete. They are more expensive than levees, but they are also stronger
Industrial hazard controls
Community protection works that are used to confine hazardous materials flows
Land-use practices
Alternative ways in which people use the land. Residential, commercial, and industrial development of urbanized areas are especially important in determining disaster impacts
Landslide controls
Methods of reducing shear stress, increasing shear resistance, or a combination of these two
Levees
Elevated barriers placed along a steambed that limit stream flow to the floodway
Overtopping
The flow of water over the top of a levee. Once this happens, the water begins to erode a path that allows increasing amounts of water to flow through the opening.
Piping
A penetration through a damn or levee that occurs when an animal burrow, rotted tree root, or other disturbance creates a long circular tunnel through or nearly through the structure
RTK provisions
A legal requirement that requires handlers of dangerous chemicals to inform neighboring communities when they store hazardous substances in amounts that are greater than EPA thresholds
Seepage erosion
A form of erosion that occurs when the height of the water in the river puts pressure on water that has seeped into the riverbed, under the levee, and into the soil on the landward side of the levee. The resulting flow of water can eventually cause boils of muddy water that erode a path for the water to flow underneath and then behind the levee
Sustainable development
A concept stating that the needs of the present must be met without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs
Trusses
Engineered systems that are internally braced to provide maximum strength at minimum weight
Wave action
A destructive condition that causes levee failure by attacking the face of the levee and scouring away the material from which it is constructed