Intro to theatre Mid term

Which statement best describes “willing suspension of disbelief”?
A dynamic in which the audience agrees to accept the fictional world of the play on an imaginative level while knowing it to be untrue.
In the statement “A performs B for C” which of the following is NOT a component of “A”?
Which statement accurately reflects similarities between theatrical performance and sports?
All of the above
Which does NOT express a difference between theatre and games or sports?
In theatre, spectators assemble at a special time and place for the event
What types of intelligence does theatre develop and make use of?
All the above
Parades, juggling, pantomime and street carnivals may all be considered theatrical entertainments
Audience taste may significantly influence what is performed, how it is performed and where it is performed.
All theatre depends upon a script as its basic starting point.
Because of “empathy,” we don’t call the police if we see a character murdered on the stage during a performance.
It is much easier to control audience focus in the theatre than it is on television or film.
Which statement BEST defines the rules about how to experience a theatrical performance?
There are no rules on how to experience a theatrical performance, but it may be more satisfying if one pays attention and uses their imagination
Audience response to a performance can be affected by which factor?
All of the above
Which is NOT part of the three-step process for developing critical judgment?
One develops a subjective response
Which is NOT one of the three basic problems of criticism?
Although some theatre critics may write flippant remarks, the most constructive or useful criticism:
All of the above
A reader may re-read, reflect, and sustain several possible interpretations of a line, scene or entire play, but the playgoer experiences the action and characters more immediately and directly.
What the audience sees is always the only possible interpretation of a script.
Theatres which produce plays intended for a small segment of the population (such as minorities) find it much easier to attract an audience than theatres whose goal it is to appeal to the community as a whole.
Professional critics always adhere to a single context in making their judgments.
Some plays and musicals have met with negative or mixed reviews and still achieved popular success.
Which of the following is NOT one of the six elements of drama, according to Aristotle?
“Point of attack” refers to:
The moment at which the plotline takes up the larger story of the play
Which most fully describes the qualities of effective dramatic action?
All of the above
Which BEST describes Melodrama as a dramatic form?
A serious action that is resolved happily and affirms the power of good over evil
Tragedy is a form associated especially with:
Elizabethan England
In many plays the “major dramatic question” stems directly from the “inciting incident”
Two of the most common plot structures are episodic and sequential
“Exposition” relates that part of the action that occurs after the “crisis” or “climax”
Style in the theatre stems only from the manner in which a playwright uses the elements of drama
An effective tragedy requires the arousal of empathy for those who strive for personal integrity and dignity
Which is NOT a writer of Classical Greek tragedy?
What function did the chorus serve in the Classical Greek theatre?
All of the above
Which refers to the main acting space of a Classical Greek theatre?
Because of the three actor rule, the actor playing Oedipus also played which of the following parts?
None of the above
The use of masks in Greek theatre served what purpose?
All of the above
Which of the following statements is true?
1) Greek Tragedy and Old Comedy were performed only at the City Dionysia Festival

2) All surviving Old Comedy plays were written by Sophocles

3) Unlike Greek Tragedy, Old Comedy was usually concerned with current issues

4) Unlike Greek Tragedy, Old Comedy didn’t use a chorus

Unlike Greek Tragedy, Old Comedy was usually concerned with current issues
Which did NOT write Roman comedy?
Which of the following statements is true?

1) All surviving Roman comedies are adaptations of Greek plays

2) All surviving Roman comedies are based on Roman myths

3) All surviving Roman comedies are concerned with social or political satire

All surviving Roman comedies are adaptations of Greek plays
Which statement best describes the medieval convention of “mansion and platea” staging?
The platea was treated as undifferentiated stage space that might be used as an extension of any particular location that a mansion represented
The trade guilds were responsible for providing:
All of the above
Greek theatrical contest rules restricted the number of speaking actors to 3 for each playwright, but did not restrict the number of characters each of those actors could play
Greek theatrical performances were offered at each of the many different religious festivals honoring various Greek gods
To show the corpses in a Greek play, the “eccyclema” was lowered from the roof of the “skene”
In Oedipus Rex Sophocles has fully defined the characters on all four levels of characterization
Like the Greek theatre which influenced it, the Roman theatre used a chorus to perform songs between the episodes
As variety entertainments diminished in popularity, Roman tragedy grew in popularity
Hrosvitha, a nun, is credited as the first female dramatist
During the Middle Ages, the movement from Liturgical to Vernacular religious drama saw performances of drama move outside of the church and into larger community spaces
Like religious plays, morality plays treated biblical or saintly characters
All drama of the medieval period was of a religious nature
Which is NOT an Elizabethan theatrical convention?
Realistic staging
Which did NOT influence the development of Elizabethan drama?
Strict adherence to neoclassical unities of time, place, and action
Which audience area had the least expensive admission price?
The gallery
Which was NOT used in association with perspective scenery?
The discovery space
An Intermezzi is:
Court entertainments based on myth or legend typically designed to pay an elaborate compliment
Which is NOT one of the three stock character types commonly found in commedia dell arte?
Many credit Carlo Goldoni (The Servant of Two Masters) with refining and reforming commedia in the 18th century. What did Goldoni NOT do?
Heighted the use of improvisation
French neoclassicism advocated all of the following EXCEPT:
The mixing of tragedy and comedy in the same play
“Molière” was:
The stage name of a leading French actor, playwright, and head of a prominent theatre company
Which is a new feature introduced to the English stage during the Restoration?
The use of women to play the female roles in public theatre performances
The acceptance of perspective scenery signaled a movement away from the formal and architectural stage in favor of the representational, pictorial stage
Elizabethan theatre was a shift from professional, secular and regularly performed theatre to communal, religious and occasionally performed theatre
Elizabethan theatre companies were fully financially supported by a noble patron
The Elizabethan staging conventions were an adaptation of medieval staging conventions
Shakespeare was the only significant dramatist of his time
In France costumes were provided to the actors by the company manager
The proscenium arch was invented to frame the stage picture
Opera emerged as an attempt to recreate the relationship between music and speech found in Greek drama
Tartuffe is organized in “french scenes:” wherein dramatic action is developed as characters enter and exit a central location
French actors in the 17th and 18th centuries were hired according to “lines of business” – or the type of characters they traditionally played
Which was NOT an appeal of melodrama?
Box Sets
Which artistic movement challenged neoclassicism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries?
The complexity involved in staging the spectacular effects required by melodrama was a contributing factor in:
The perceived need for a director to coordinate and unify stage action
Which is an implication some derived from Charles Darwin’s theories?
Heredity and environment influence human behavior and characteristics
A Doll’s House exemplifies realism in that:
The play develops logically through a cause-to-effect dramatic construction
Ibsen’s dramas were considered controversial because:
They challenged existing moral values and social norms
Who is usually considered the first director, in the modern sense?
George II, duke of Saxe-Meiningen
Wagner’s demand for “unity of production:”
Sought to filter all stage expressions through a single artistic consciousness
The independent theatre movement:
Got around the censorship laws governing public performance by staging “private” performances
Stanislavsky’s “magic if” refers to:
A way through which the performer may imaginatively project themselves into the world of the play
Romanticists thought of a play as merely “a slice of life” – reality transferred to the stage.
Melodrama encouraged the development of realistic spectacle
Among other things, Freud’s theories contributed to an increased awareness of subtext (the possibility of a covert meaning beneath what is overtly communicated)
Realism and naturalism were based on the idea that character is determined by heredity and environment
In the play A Doll’s House, Nora walks out on her husband because he won’t give her any money
The configuration of Wagner’s theatre at Bayreuth set the pattern for most 20th century theatres
Saxe-Meiningen’s company was known especially for its realistic crowd scenes
Numerous independent theatres were established all over Europe, the first of which was the Théâtre Libre in Paris.
George Bernard Shaw wrote comedies for London’s Independent Theatre that punctured popular prejudices and provoked audiences to reassess their values
Stanislavsky believed that on stage the actor should be free to improvise spontaneously
Which is NOT a characteristic of the theatrical space?
In which arrangement is the audience seated on at least 2 but not more than 3 sides of the stage?
In which arrangement is a production’s costumes likely to be the least detailed?
Proscenium Arch
Which is NOT an element of design?
Which of these practitioners makes use of visual design?
All of the above
The level of formality expressed through architecture and decoration within a theatre does not affect an audience’s expectations or responses to a production
In a flexible space theatre, the audience seating and performance areas may not be rigidly fixed
Small professional companies, such as Off-Off Broadway theatres, have more extensive auxiliary spaces than regional and university theatres usually do
Theatre artists are able, through careful collaboration and coordination of visual and aural signs, to ensure that the audience will fully interpret their intentions
The principles of design are: line, shape, space, color, texture, and ornamentation
Playwrights have been the most removed from the production process in:
21st century America
Playwrights need to see their work performed to answer questions about:
All the above
A production dramaturg:
Assists the director by supplying information and asking critical questions
Who is considered to be the first dramaturg?
Which is NOT considered an “old practice” in terms of play development?
Literary managers ask for clarification of goals
Which best explains the difference between literary management and production dramaturgy?
Literary management is concerned with the entire season, whereas production dramaturgy is concerned with a specific production
The Humana Festival in New York stages multiple new plays every year
Two weeks before opening night of a new play the playwright is no longer allowed to make revisions so that the actors have sufficient time to learn their lines
Almost all plays that are written for the theatre eventually gain a fully mounted production
The basic question one asks when considering a play for production is “why this play for this audience at this time?”
Dramaturgs have some responsibility for educating the audience
Which statement best describes the essential service the producer provides the director?
The producer provides the space, personnel and money the director needs to realize his or her vision
Producers usually provide potential investors with:
A proposed budget for all expenses prior to opening the show, weekly operating costs, and a plan for dividing any profits
Which statement best defines the auteur directorial approach?
The director uses the script as raw material to be reshaped for his or her own purposes
Which is NOT ordinarily a responsibility of the director?
To determine the total cost of the production and its projected income
Stage movement may:
All of the above
The term “blocking” refers to:
Establishing the performers’ movements from place-to-place and their bodily position
The term “colorblind casting” refers to what practice?
Casting the most talented performer suitable for the role regardless of race or ethnicity
Which is NOT a main directorial concern in guiding the performers’ use of voice and speech?
That the contents of their speeches should not be offensive or vulgar in any way
Which is the perhaps the most indispensable of the director’s assistants?
The stage manager
The typical rehearsal schedule follows what process?
Read and discuss the script, blocking, memorize lines, ensemble playing, technical rehearsals
The producer’s primary functions are financial and managerial in nature
When studying the script, one of the questions a director may ask is whether or not the length of the script should be cut.
Directors generally dictate to the designers exactly what the show should look like
The term “open call” means that anyone who wants to audition may do so without any restrictions
Ariane Mnouchkine staged some of Shakespeare’s history plays using the formalized conventions of Asian theatre is an example of the auteur directorial approach
Each moment within a play creates an image that sends a message to the audience – whether planned or not
The means to create visual emphasis remain the same, regardless of the type of stage
From the beginning of rehearsals, directors are usually able to rehearse with the actual scenery, properties and costumes
The term “technical rehearsals” refers to when the actors first discuss the play with the director
Director Anne Bogart has gained considerable notoriety for staging familiar or classical plays in a manner that can seem iconoclastic
Stage acting requires:
All of the above
An action is “cheated” if:
It isn’t really done, but instead is faked through careful timing and positioning of the actors
What does an actor doing scene study typically do?
All of the above
Which accurately identifies the 4 levels of characterization?
Biological, sociological, psychological, ethical
What does an actor need to know to understand the role for which he or she has been cast?
All of the above.
To “dress the stage” means to move slightly to balance the stage picture
Film actors have greater control over shaping their performances than do stage actors
To “endow” an object means to give it an emotional significance and value from the character’s perspective
A “planted prop” is one that must not be referred to or moved in any manner
An actor only needs to understand his or her own role and not be concerned with the others
The term “cue lines” refers to knowing what another actor is going to say just before it is your turn to speak
Most actor’s vocal and movement training begins by developing an understanding of how the voice and body work, and by releasing unnecessary tension or inhibitions
Which accurately describes a function of scene design?
All of the above
A “floor plan” (or ground plan):
Shows all of the elements of the setting and their arrangement
Each of these is an example of a soft scenery unit EXCEPT:
“Front elevations” show:
The appearance of the unit including any molding, baseboards, or attached platforms
Which is NOT part of a theatre’s counterweight system?
A “wagon” is generally used for:
Moving heavy or complex set pieces on and off stage
In most theatres, which person sees to it that the scenery is built appropriately?
Technical director
Scene designers must consider their work in much the same way as interior decorators
“Spattering” refers to a painting technique of simultaneously applying and blending more than one shade of paint on the same surface to create a mottled effect
A “set prop” refers to a property that is attached to the setting or one that functions as part of the design, such as a sofa or a cabinet
3-dimensional units are used more often in arena theatres than any other configuration
Wood may eventually replace steel because of its greater strength and durability
The technical director works for the scene designer and is supervised by the scene designer
Which accurately describes a function of costume design?
All of the above
What is the purpose of a costume chart?
To communicate the broad organization of all the characters’ costumes in a single glance
A costume working drawing is a color sketch that shows:
The costume from a distinctive angle, often including details of special features
In the professional theatre, how are custom made beards, moustaches and wigs typically made?
Human hair is tied with special needles onto a special woven net, then measured and cut to fit the performer.
Which is NOT considered a type of painted makeup effect?
Costumes always adhere to realistic standards of dress
Costumes help to determine the amount, type and overall pattern of movement and stage business
The development of the dramatic action can be underscored by changes in what each character wears
The typical process of building a stage costume is to: (1) take the performer’s measurements, (2) purchase the materials, (3) draft patterns for the cutting and shaping of the material, (4) construct the garment, and (5) fit the garment to the performer.
In the professional theatre, actors are responsible for applying their own makeup, though the costume designer may design it.
Which is NOT a controllable quality of light?
The term “selective transmission” refers to what?
The wavelengths of light that each color filter permits to pass through
Specific illumination is:
Generated by spotlights
The instrument schedule serves what purpose?
Summarizes in tabular form all of the technical information needed for setting up the lighting instruments
Which is NOT one of the functions of sound design?
Reinforces the stage composition
The term “mixed-media production” refers to what practice?
All of the above
Lighting designers can make firm decisions about all aspects of their designs work at the same time as the scenery and costume designers
Realistic sound refers to sounds that stem from an recognizable source
An ellipsoidal is essentially a flood light and is used primarily for general illumination
Although sound has always played an important role in theatrical production, it is not considered a separate art of design
In a proscenium theatre all of the lighting instruments are mounted behind the proscenium
The “sound score” is an audio recording of all of the sound effects for a production
What city does Oedipus rule?
Who is Oedipus’ wife?
Who did Oedipus kill?
Who originally predicted Oedipus’ fate?
All the above
What was Oedipus’ fate?
He would kill his father and marry his mother
Oedipus’ daughters are his sisters.
When Oedipus finds out that his fate has come true, how do both he and Jocasta react?
Jocasta kills herself and Oedipus blinds himself with her brooches.
What god does Oedipus blame for his horrible fate?
Who was Teiresias?
The blind prophet
Where does the entire action of the play take place?
in the Torvald’s study
What time of year does the play take place?
Why does Mrs. Linde come to visit Nora?
To get an endorsement to work in Torvald’s office
What subject preoccupies much of the first scene between Nora and Helmer in the first scene?
What does Krogstad do to blackmail Nora?
Drop a letter in the mailbox to Torvald about her loan
What does Nora do to prevent Torvald from reading the letter?
Dance a tarantella
What year was A Doll’s House written?
Who is the playwright of A Doll’s House?
Henrik Ibsen
Why did Nora borrow the money?
she wanted to help her husband’s health improve
What happens at the end of the play?
Nora leaves her husband and children
Who was Mr. Lindner?
The man who wants to buy them out.
Where did Ruth go instead of to the doctor’s office?
An abortionist.
Why did Walter need $10,000?
To invest in a Liquor Store
What is Walter’s occupation?
Where did the family buy a house?
Clybourne Park
What is the name of the youngest member of the Younger family?
Where did Beneatha get asked to go with Asagai?
How did Beneathea aquire the money?
Walter Lees insurance
According to Asagai, what word does he use to describe what Beneatha does to her hair?
Which Japanese theatre forms uses puppets as its main characters?
Which of these is a Zen Buddhist principle that influenced Noh?
All of the above
The play Shrine in the Fields is what type of Noh play?
A Woman play
In a Kabuki performance a “mie” is:
A highly styled pose struck and held by the principal character
Which of the following is NOT a feature of Wayang Kulit?
Actors which interact with the puppets
In indigenous African performances, what is the least important aspect?
The Strong Breed reflects cultural traditions of which Yoruba festival?
Japanese playwrights continue to write Noh plays today
In Noh drama, the climactic moment is expressed in song
Beijing Opera has performance conventions similar to those of European opera, only the stories are derived from Chinese myths
The staging conventions used in Strong Breed are much the same as those found in European and American theatres
In African indigenous performances, audience participation is expected
Colonialism had no effect on the cultural activity of North Africa
Athol Fugard was the first African playwright to be honored with a Nobel prize for literature
Which theatre began in 1965 by performing political skits to support striking migrant farm workers?
El Teatro Campesino
What type of theatre did Amiri Baraka advocate?
A black separatist theatre: “By us, about us, for us”
Lydia by Octavio Solis, has been compared to the works of:
Eugene O’Neill and Arthur Miller
What type of dramatic structure does How I Learned to Drive use?
An episodic plot structure in which the action moves forward and backwards in time through associations structured through a central metaphor of a driving lesson
Which American female playwright has NOT won a Pulitzer Prize for Drama?
Tracy Letts
Which playwright is director Lloyd Richards MOST associated with?
Raisin in the Sun
During 2010, not-for-profit theatres presented how many productions?
Which is considered an important factor in the revival of the American musical?
All of the above
Robert Wilson’s productions juxtapose visual images; often of a variety of styles, cultures and historical periods, out of which each spectator constructs his or her own associations and meanings
Postmodernists argue that it is the director’s task to translate the script faithfully
George C. Wolfe is an influential African American playwright and director
In the play Fences, Troy Maxson is a professional baseball player with the Brooklyn Dodgers.
“Magic Realism” is defined as realistic and fantastic elements existing alongside each other
In the play Lydia, the central character, Lydia, has been in a tragic car accident
Tony Kushner’s Angels in America marked the first turning point in the acceptability of plays about homosexuality
Contemporary performance art is much the same today as it was in the 1970s
Martin McDonough’s plays combine verbal wit and highly imaginative action with complex ideas about perceptions of reality
The musical Rent is a modern adaptation of George Bernard Shaw’s play Pygmalion.
The Living Theatre:
None of the above
What did Jerzy Grotowski want to achieve?
He wanted actors and audience to undergo an event wherein they might spiritually confront themselves
Josef Svoboda is among those typically credited with:
All of the above
Happenings typically had all the following characteristics EXCEPT:
An emphasis on representation of a scripted text for an audience
Performance art formed, in part, due to impulses that had also inspired which of the following people?
Alan Kaprow
Which theatre became the prototype for regional theaters in the U.S.?
Theatre ’47
Which Off-Off Broadway theatre offers plays free of charge in central park?
The New York Shakespeare Festival
Which is NOT considered a regional theatre?
Playwrights Horizons
Which playwright’s work instigated Parliament to abolish censorship laws that had been in place for over 200 years?
Edward Bond
Which is a characteristic of Stephen Sondheim’s musicals?
Ironic and melancholic views of human behavior
Paradise Now was the first time nudity and obscenity appeared in a production on Broadway
Environmental theatre blurs the distinctions between acting space and audience space
No European countries consider funding for the arts a cultural responsibility
The Stratford Festival is most closely associated with the English National Theatre
Off-Broadway theatres were founded as a way to produce plays that the typical Broadway audiences probably wouldn’t come see
The Ford Foundation funded the 1963 opening of the Guthrie Theatre in Minneapolis
The term “decentralization” refers to the efforts to establish theatre centers in various parts of the country
England’s Royal Shakespeare Company and National Theatre are both examples of very successful theatres that owe much to the federal subsidies they were granted
Playwright David Mamet writes about serious subjects in and outrageous manner to comically underscore the absurdity of modern life
Popular Broadway musicals in the 1970s and 80s were, for the most part, imports from England
Which idea or practice did Adolphe Appia urge?
Flat painted scenery should be replaced with three-dimensional structures
Which is a typical Futurist practice?
Compression of a full-length play’s essence into a few moments
At which modernist group’s performance might “chance poems,” music, and dances be included?
The Federal Theatre Project
Was a nationwide program that aimed to provide jobs and Americans with free, adult, uncensored theatre
Which statement most accurately defines the goals of the “new stagecraft” or modified realism?
Simplification and suggestion to stimulate the imagination rather than providing every detail
Which is associated with Bertolt Brecht’s Epic Theatre?
All of the above
Antonin Artaud advocated a “theatre of cruelty” wherein “cruelty” refers to:
The audience being forced to confront itself in order to purge the unconscious mind of destructive impulses
Which are playwrights whose works characterized American psychological realism of the early postwar years?
Arthur Miller and Tennessee Williams
What musical is often cited as the first to fully integrate music, story, dance and visual elements to support the dramatic action?
Which is NOT an absurdist playwright?
Arthure Miller
Expressionism was the first artistic movement to reject representationalism (the long-standing relationship between perception and representation)
Adolphe Appia considered light the most flexible of all theatrical elements
Futurism and Dadaism both advocated simultaneity and multiple focus
Eugene O’Neill’s “The Hairy Ape” is an example of an “Epic Theatre” play
The widely acclaimed Group Theatre (1931-1941) had no connection to Stanislavsky and bitterly opposed his ideas and practices
In The Good Woman of Setzuan a kind-hearted prostitute named Shen Te disguises herself as her hard-hearted cousin Shui Ta because she finds it impossible to be good in an economic system that forces people to do bad things in order to survive
Artaud was at one time a member of the realistic movement
Artaud advocated the creation of new performance spaces wherein the formal divisions between performers and audience would be eliminated
Elia Kazan, who directed the first Broadway production of Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, was successful in insisting that Tennessee Williams include “Big Daddy” in the last act, and make other changes to make the overall tone of the play more positive
In Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot, one major theme is the isolation and loneliness of human beings