Elements in Communication Process
Sender, Message, Channel, Receiver
The form through which the message is delivered. Ex. internet, e-mail, newspaper.
Strategic Sport Communication Model
Depicts the dynamics of communication and the various settings in which communication occurs in sport. Four elements are: sport communication process, personal and organizational communication, sport mass media, and sport communication services and support.
Organization doesn’t seek input from key publics but very concerned about having messages sent to a wide audience. Ex. Press Release, Tweet
Organization assumes input from target publics is important and effective to accomplish goals. Ex. Survey
Media Relations specialist duties
Writing news releases, planning news conferences, managing the press box, and careers in Media Relations
Community Relations specialist duties
Execute charitable events/ initiatives, community enhancement, fundraise for charitable organizations. (Kim Lambert at Mizzou Athletics)
Types of Facilities
Single purpose, multipurpose, nontraditional
Single purpose facility
Has just one purpose (swimming pool, golf course, baseball field)
Can house multiple sports (Mizzou Arena)
Venues not considered traditional (skate park, ice skating rink)
7 Event Management Plan (in order)
Scheduling, Negotiating, Coordinating, Staging, Settling with the promoter, Cleaning up, Evaluating
Staging an Event
Parking and seating, customer service, alcohol policies, and crowd management (look for True/False questions on this)
Crowd Management Plan
Need a crowd management plan for all sizes of events, not just large ones. Involves staff training, emergency planning, ensuring accessibility for disabled people, procedures for ejecting disruptive people, efficient communication system, and effective signage.
Sport organizations identify and satisfy customers unfulfilled needs. Over 100 motives for participating but three categories: Achievement (to win and compete), Social (to build relationships), and Mastery (to master a skill)
Different reasons for watching and participating. There are two types of spectator motivation: Diversion (escape from everyday life) and Eustress (desire excitement from sport).
Group Influences on Sport Consumer
External factors influencing buying behavior: people close to us, groups with whom we choose to associate, and broader society.
People and groups who influence our values, norms, perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors by providing us with a valued point of comparison.
Direct Reference group
Reference groups that require face-to-face interaction. Ex. family and friends, culture.
Indirect Reference group
Reference groups that do not require direct contact but can be highly influential. Ex. athletes, politicians, celebrities
Aspirational Reference group
Reference group to which an individual wishes to belong. Ex. Gatorade advertising campaign “Be Like Mike [Jordan]”.
Challenges in Sport Consumer Behavior
Meaning and emotion of sport consumption, globalization of sport, virtual consumption, and compulsive consumption.
Sources of Law
REVIEW PAGE 352 IN BOOK! Constitutions, statutes, administrative law, common law.
Americans With Disabilities Act
Passed in 1990, prohibits discrimination against people with disabilities and people who are PERCIEVED to have disabilities. (Maybe True/False question)
Three Prong Test
Used to examine the extent to which the interests and abilities of the underrepresented group have been accommodated. Provides with way to comply with Title XI. (IMPORTANT)
PAGE 359 IN BOOK. Says you cannot discriminate based on sex in any education program or activity that receives federal financial assistance.
Compares the proportionality of the university’s male and female students to the proportionality of male and female student-athletes. Ex. If Mizzou is 53% females, 53% of student-athletes must be female.
Showing that the school has a history and a continuing practice of program expansion responsive to the interests and abilities of the underrepresented sex. Cannot site the elimination of a men’s program under this prong.
Can demonstrate compliance by proving that it is fully and effectively meeting the interests and abilities of its students with its current athletics programs. Show that an inequality is due to legitimate, non-discriminatory practices.
Title IX 3 Evaluation Areas
1. Distribution of financial aid for men and women. 2. Other benefits, opportunities, and treatments. 3. Have the interests and abilities of the other group been accommodated?
(Could be True/False with one or two words missing or wrong) A sub-discipline of sociology involving the study of sports as a social phenomena.
What do sport sociologists do?
1. Examine Institutions, Organizations, and Sub-Cultures. 2. Do NOT focus on behavior of specific individuals. 3. Assume sport is an important institution.
Benefits of Sport
Sport is a socializing agent (process by which people learn from social interaction and come to know the environment around them) and sport is a unifier (brings people together, gives them a sense of identity, ex. Olympics).
Dark Side of Sport
Sport as a divider, sexism in sport, Homophobia and heterosexism in sport, racism in sport
Sport as a Vehicle fro Social Transformation
Sport is one of the few institutions that can serve as a catalyst for change, challenges existing stereotypes and helps transform society.. (True/False questions). Ex. modern color barrier (Jackie Robinson, Mohamad Ali, Serena Williams, Tiger Woods)