INTRO TO PR FINAL EXAM

Public relations is a _______ function that helps achieve organizational objectives, defines philosophy and facilitates organizational change.
Leadership and Management
Public Relations has been seen as the planned effort to influence public opinion, generally though ________.
Persuasive communication
_________ are defined as groups of people who become important to an organization for one reason or another.
Publics or Audiences
Which of the following is a key public for public relations practitioners?
Media
Employees
Governmental officials
Community Leaders
________ are persuasive efforts to inform people and change their behaviors regarding some public good.
Social marketing programs
Government agencies often use the term ______ to delineate public relations.
Public affairs
The key difference between advertising and public relations centers around ________
Payment for message placement in media
_________ involves analyzing problems and opportunities, defining goals and the publics and recommending and planning activities.
Programming
News conferences, convention exhibits, anniversary celebrations and tours all fall under the label of ________
Special events
Public relations practitioners promoting _______ insist that the organization serve in the public interest.
Social responsibility
One of the most important roles of public relations practitioners is interpreting ________ to management.
Public opinion climate
Public relations leaders spend time gauging the implications that social, political and economic issues at home and abroad have on maintaining the organization’s ________
Long term reputation
In multinational corporations, globalization has increased the need for clear, consistent and central corporate messages with adaptation at the _______ level.
Local
_______ are considered key audiences for public relations efforts.
Activist groups
Media
Employees
Financial analysts
Activist publics should be contacted by practitioners _______.
As early as possible
Which of the following is not a controlled media?
Daily newspaper
Public relations leaders spend much of their time gauging the implications that ______ issues have on maintaining an organization’s long-term reputation.
Social
Political
Economic
Public relations is increasingly becoming the responsibility of ______.
Executives
What king of press agentry was labeled a harmless deceiver?
P.T. Barnum
_______ is often labeled as the father of public relations.
Ivy Lee
Which public relations practitioner issued a “declaration of principles” that set the standard for public relations to keep the public informed and to provide accurate information to the news media?
Ivy Lee
Arthur Page established himself as a pioneer in public relations by his insistence on _______.
Closely monitoring public opinion
_______ was assembled to promote war bonds, food rationing and growing victory gardens among other activities during WWII.
The Office of War Information
In 1954, _______ developed the first code of ethics for PR practitioners.
PRSA
________ has lead to the need for PR practitioners to provide more specialized information tailored to various audiences.
The proliferation of media channels
Samuel Adams staged the _______ to influence public opinion.
Boston Tea Party
The acronym APR stands for _______.
Accredited Public Relations
What tool has revolutionized the way journalists and public relations practitioners gather information.
Search engines such as Google
The six principles of PR by Arthur Page are ________.
Tell the truth
Prove it with action
Listen to the customer
Manage for tomorrow
Conduct PR as if the company depended on it
Company’s character is repped by people
Remain calm, patient, and good humored
A _______ is a prediction of how events and actions are related.
Theory
_______ looks at organizations as made up in interrelated parts that adapt and adjust to changed in the environment in which they operate.
Systems theory
Organizations with _______ do not seek information on relationships with publics; but instead operate on past history or the preferences of decision makers.
Closed systems
In public relations, groups that create problems and opportunities for each other are called ________.
Stakeholders
________ helps explain why some groups are active on a single issue, others are active on many issues and others are generally uninterested.
Situational theory
This variable refers to how much an individual cares about an issue.
Level of involvement
Public relations people use the following terms to talk about persuasion _______.
Awareness
Attitude
Beliefs
Behavior
_________ uses the economic metaphor of costs and benefits to predict behavior.
Social exchange theory
Diffusion Theory
Individuals can be influenced to adopt an idea by going through 5 stages.
Awareness
Interest
Evaluation
Trial
Adoption
______ attempts to explain why employees may model inappropriate behavior if the feel that behavior is being rewarded in more experienced employees.
Social learning theory
The ________ influences people through such things as repetition, spokesperson credibility and tangible rewards.
Peripheral route
The idea that the media does not tell people what to think, but that they do tell them what to think about is forwarded by which theory?
Agenda setting theory
What two broad roles emerge to describe public relations practitioner activity?
Technician and Manager
What are the models of public relations?
Press Agentry
Public Information
Two-Way Symmetrical
Two-Way Asymmetrical
Public Influence
Cultural Interpreter
The _______ model depicts a practice of public relations in which practitioners try to establish relationships with key individuals.
Personal influence
Systems theory can be used only to look at relationships with ________.
Customers
Media
Employees
Shareholders
The primary decision makers of an organization are often called the ________.
Dominant coalition
_______ helps explain why some groups are active on a single issue while others act on many issues.
Situational Theory
Public relations practitioners attempt to influence the media agenda by providing news items for _______.
Public Consumption
The public information model of public relations involves ________.
Making publics aware of information
The idea that people use the media as a substitute for personal relationships is posited by which theory?
Uses and Gratifications
_______ is speech defined as the publication of material that would hold one up to hatred, ridicule, contempt or spite.
Defamation
Written or printed words that hold a person up to hatred, ridicule, contempt or spite.
Libel
The two categories of libel law are ________.
Criminal and Civil
Unlike ordinary citizens, public figures must prove ______ to win a libel case.
Malice
________ is a primary defense against libel charges.
Fair comment
If a practitioner uses a picture of a person without his/her permission to advertise a product, allegations concerning ______ would be raised.
Appropriation
The ______ generally requires that all government records be available to the public.
Freedom of Information Act
The ______ opened to the public some previously closed meetings of federal boards, commissions and agencies.
Sunshine Act
_______ governs all commercial advertising.
The Federal Trade Commission
If _______ is established, practitioners can use another person’s creative work without permission.
Fair Use
________ cover the names of businesses and businesses products.
Trademark laws
A practitioner who copies information from a newspaper website and forwards it to stockholders must consider the implications of the action in terms of _______.
Copyright
What issue continues to prevent public relations from being a fully professional occupation?
Licensure
Damage in libel cases can involve ______.
Harming a person’s reputation
Proving the _________ is a defense against libel charges.
Publication of truthful material
Types of invasion of privacy include _______.
Appropriation
Publication of private info
Intrusion
False light
Commercial speech is monitored at _______ level.
Both the state and federal
The _____ requires that both publicly owned corporations submit annual reports.
SEC
Material placed on the Internet ______.
Can be copyright protected
All effective PR starts with ________.
Research
What is an example of using secondary research?
Reviewing someone else’s research data
Informal research techniques are ________.
Reviewing past PR records
Forming special committees to identify critical issues.
Casual monitoring of material presented to stakeholders.
Investigating data banks for information to guide a campaign.
________ are generally assembled prior to surgery research to help the researcher have enough info to ask appropriate questions on the survey questionnaire.
Focus groups
Scientific research is also known as _______ research.
Formal
What is the most common type of research process performed by public relations practitioners?
Survey
Experimental research is generally divided into what two categories?
Laboratory and Field
Psychographics are _______.
A method for categorizing people by things they generally can change.
What is a disadvantage to interviews?
The personality of the interviewer can influence responses.
________ allows each member of a public an equal chance of being selected.
Simple random sampling
A public is a group of people who share a common problem or goal and recognize ______.
Their common interest
Which public type faces an indeterminate situation but does not recognize it as a problem?
Latent public
The ________ is a broad-scale study that examines the internal and external public relations of an organization.
Public relations audit
What are the steps in a public relations audit?
Find out what the org thinks
Find out what the public thinks
Evaluate the disparity between what the org thinks and what the public thinks.
Recommending a public relations program
________ help determine the clarity of a written message and its appropriateness to the educational level of an audience.
Readability studies
One of the major uses of public relations research is in ________.
Issues management
What are informal research techniques?
Focus groups
Casual monitoring
Record keeping
Internet research
Which of the following research methods allows researchers to see forms of nonverbal communication along a small number of people who share the same demographic characteristics?
Focus groups
A technique that allows each member of a public an equal chance of being selected is ________.
Simple random sampling
________ public relations involves anticipating needs and planning to meet goals.
Proactive
Planning permits the development of integrated public relations efforts that support an organization’s goals in a positive rather than a ________ manner.
Defensive
_________ are long-range plans, usually made at the upper levels of management, and involve decisions concerning major goals.
Strategic
What is the name for the group discussion technique used to generate large numbers of creative ideas?
Brainstorming
In scenario construction, a logical description of _______ is constructed to explore the dynamics of various alternatives.
Future events
Elements of campaign planning include ________.
Determining the present situation
Researching and selecting the target audience
Developing a theme for the plan
Creating strategies to accomplish objectives
_________ are used to define means for achieving objectives more precisely.
Strategies
________ requires that a benchmark be set before the plan so that achievements can be measured against it.
Evaluation
_______ is a process of assessing what you have and where you want to go.
Strategic planning
__________ are statements that specify the action to be taken in a particular situation.
Rules
A zero-based budget is typically used for a _________.
Campaign
What percentage of practitioners identify a target audience in their planning?
100%
_______ are groups that share a common goal or guiding philosophy and can make an impact on the primary public.
Moderating publics
_______ recognize a need but are not prone to any action.
Aware public
________ is a term used to describe the way in which new ideas are adopted in a society.
Diffusion
Which of the following is one of the steps in the diffusion process?
Evaluation
At this stage in diffusion process, actual application of an idea begins.
Trial
In the early stages of awareness and interest, ________ are most effective at persuading adoption.
Mass media
The two-way step flow of information theory was built on the premise that certain people in our society are _________.
Opinion leaders
________ assume the responsibility for making sure all messages received by their publics are prepared according to the public relations plan.
Project managers
_______ is the principal tool for constructing messages.
Writing
The _______ style of writing organizes a story so the most important points are covered first.
Inverted pyramid
Which of the following is NOT an example of a controlled media?
Newspaper
Which of the following is one of the basic considerations for media selection?
Audiences
The basic elements through which a message must pass where the audience may selectively decide to be involved with communication.
Understanding
Retention
Action
Attention
For messages to be understood, there needs to be _______ between both message sender and message receiver.
Shared framed of reference
In the end, a message must be _______ to be acted upon.
Retained
The action implemented to accomplish a public relations plan can be explained as an attempt to spread ________ within a target audience.
Information
The _______ is built upon the belief that opinion leaders can be convinced to support a certain matter and influence others to support it also.
Two-Step flow of information theory
In the diffusion process, mass media becomes the primary channel of influence in the _______ stage.
Interest
The length of sentences in a written document is widely recognized as a key to its ______.
Clarity
The ______ is a journalistic name for the first one or two paragraphs of a news story or other informative writing.
Lead
Controlled media is typically published by _________.
Public relations practitioners
Publication in uncontrolled media requires _________.
Acceptance by gatekeepers
_______ describes the situation where publics can attend to only a few of the messages they are bombarded with daily.
Selective attention
When impact is evaluated, practitioners measure the number of people who ________.
Change their opinions
If results of a program are compared to objectives following the completion of an effort, what type of evaluation is being conducted?
Outcome evaluation
_______ involves preparing advance statements, usually during the planning phase of a program, concerning legitimate expectations from a given effort and when evaluation occurs, objectives are compared to accomplishments.
Measurement by objectives
________ involves evaluating whether or not the intended publics in a public relations effort are reached.
Audience coverage
The basic premise of _________ is that written copy will be ineffective if it is too difficult to read.
Readability studies
________ refers to forces outside of the control of the public relations practitioner influencing attitudes and behaviors of intended publics.
Environmental mediation
A ___________ limits its scope to the messages and events planned for the campaign and their effects on the intended publics.
Closed-system evaluation
________ monitoring is conducted at regular intervals during campaigns to determine the effectiveness of the program.
In-progress
Learning about failures of an effort helps to assist in the development of future efforts because _________.
Adjustments may become evident that can steer subsequent attempts
One of the functions of evaluation is to ________.
Prove the value of PR to management
Enhance organizational support
Provide a means of learning what works and what doesn’t.
Show the return on investment that PR offers
______ is not the basis of trust bestowed by journalists upon PR practitioners.
Bias
_______ can be evaluated by investigating the activity of the organization’s media representative.
Media relations
_______ is a method of evaluation emphasizing the importance of such factors as unintended audiences and economic situations.
Open-system model
The publication of PR materials in the mainstream media lend the messages distributed a sense of _________.
Legitimacy
Journalists are sometimes seen as ______ by PR practitioners because of their role in filtering information they receive – using some to form content and throwing some away.
Gatekeepers
Reporters often visit ________ looking for information concerning a company’s background, company history, executive speeches and product information
Organization website
The fundamental power of the media lies in its professionals’ ability to ________.
Choose what topics to cover
The relationship between journalists and public relations practitioners is one of _______.
Mutual dependence
PR practitioners should give journalists materials _________.
In a form that makes their use in the media easier.
A Video News Release (VNR) is _______.
Short news package presenting a news item from an organization’s perspective
When covering negative organizational news, a news release should tell the full story and _________.
Detail how corrective actions are being taken
The internet has changed public relations in what way?
PR practitioners can put news on the Web site for reporters to access at any time.
Blogs provide opportunity to communicate with publics and find target audiences.
Podcasting allows orgs to provide audio and video info to the general public.
What is recommended during a crisis?
Be as open as possible with all stakeholder groups.
If you don’t know the answer to a question, tell the media you don’t know.
Establish a central information center.
Take responsibility for correcting the situation.
Which of the following best describes the new media relations environment?
Smaller target audience segments
More defined target publics
Growing number of media outlets
New social media
The most common publicity release is a _______.
News release
Which of the following describes the attitude an interviewee should NOT have toward journalists?
Adversarial
A problem with public service announcements is _______.
They may air at any time of the day or night.