intro r/tv/f

name three things needed for a public file
1) EEO reports
2)Political broadcast time request
3)letters from the public
4)record keeping showing compliance with childrens programming (3 hrs per week)
Name the different kinds of business models through history
The telegraph model
The telephone model
The per-set tax model
Voluntary audience contribution model
Government subsidy/ownership model
toll broadcasting model
sponsorship model
spot advertising model
subscription model
Why did networks want to move away from the sponsorship model? What scandal prompted this move?
Sponsors wanted too much control over programs. The quiz show scandal (Charles Van Doren)
What are the three different types of television stations?
network owned and operated (o & o)
network affiliates
independent stations
What are the owner qualifications of a broadcast station?
citizenship
character (people of good character)
ownership structure/financial
technical
Give an example of toll broadcast model of business
infomercials
give an example of the sponsorship model of business
product placement
what do syndicators do
They license groups of previously produced network programs to individual stations or group of stations
what is a broadcast television network
A company that operates a television network that has national distribution of programming achieved through its o&o stations and affiliated stations. Ex: NBC, CBS, ABC, FOX
what is network compensation
broadcast tv networks traditionally paid their affiliate stations because the affiliate cleared their schedule to air the network’s programming
what is reverse compensation
recent move from network compensation to broadcast tv networks ceasing to pay affiliate stations and in some cases, demanding affiliates pay the broadcast tv network for providing the material
What is a LMA
Local marketing agreement: lets one station take over programming and advertising sales for another station in the same market- when a station is owned by one company but operated by another.
name two big tv ownership rules
1)no company/individual can own more than 39% of the national stations
2)company can only own up to 2 stations in a market but there are conditions to that
what are the reasons why broadcast TV networks & affiliate relationships are strained
1)networks ceased with network compensation
2)networks started taking advertising time away from affiliates
3)reverse compensation
4)networks have been re-purposing programming
5)broadcast network now asking the local affiliate to give network a cut of retransmission consent
What caused all these changes (in regards to weblets)
1) growth spurt in over-the-air tv stations.
2)cable tv’s growth ensured that the channels would receive carriage on the local cable system
3)tv was becoming big business
4)the big three were shown to be vulnerable to competition
5)audience was shifting away from broad programming to individual choices
Who are the top 2 tv group owners
1)FOX
2)CBS
what are the advantages of group ownership
-more production resources
-guaranteed distribution
-repurposing of programming
-advertising packages
-multiple radio formats
-economies of scale
-career opportunities
what are the disadvantages of group ownership
-fewer voices, less diversity of opinion
-formulaic programming
-reduced competition
-fewer jobs
-less local programming, especially news
what is the must-carry rule
local cable providers must carry over-the-air stations in the basic programming lineup
what is retransmission consent
local tv stations seek payment from cable companies, and can deny the cable operator permission to carry the programming
what is a MSO and who is the largest cable MSO
multiple system operators
COMCAST
what is OTT
over-the-top service: any app or service that provides a product over the internet & bypasses traditional distributions (netflix, hulu, skype)
diginet
multicast channels of broadcast stations; think ‘subchannels’ i.e. MeTV/BounceTV
net neutrality
set of rules by FCC to prevent speed traps in internet
Structure of Typical Station
1)management
2)business/finance
3)sales
4)news
5)human resources
6)production
7)programming
what was the first commercial?
toll broadcasting by AT&T in 1922/23 by real estate firm
what is the broadcast star model?
network affiliated station in the middle with FCC, syndicators, network, producers, advertisers & audience surrounding it
name some of the changes radio has had to face (ch.10)
-recent economic downturn
-competition from other services
-automation
name some of the changes tv has had to face (ch 10)
-financial pressures have led to consolidation, reduction in staff & budget cutting
-economies of scale
-network-affiliated relations are strained
-competition from internet
what are the four factors the FCC analyze when considering crossownership
1)the extent to which cross-ownership will serve to increase the amount of local news disseminated through the affected media outlet
2)whether each affected media outlet in the combination will exercise its own independent news judgement
3)the level of concentration in the DMA
4)the financial condition of the newspaper or broadcast station, and if they’re in financial distress
name some of the changes cable, satellite & Telcos have had to face (ch. 10)
-cable systems have many local employees, even if owned by MSO
-satellite structure similar to broadcasting, but markets to subscribers (not advertisers)
-telcos striving to provide more than just telephone service
what are some of the issues internet is beginning to face (ch. 10)
-streaming & downloading content is becoming more common; giving the user more control
-audience viewing & listening behavior is changing rapidly
what is the most common advertising model today?
spot advertising
Are there any limitations to how many commercials a radio/tv program can air?
nope. With one exception being-children’s TV programming has certain restrictions.
In sales per dollar, how much money of radio advertising goes toward local, national & network spots?
Local: .79
National: .17
Network: .4
In sales per dollar, how much money of tv advertising goes toward local, nationla, & network spots?
Local: .24
National: .30
Network: .46
What is product placement?
Companies pay to get products inserted into programming
Who’s spending the most money in advertising? (Which business)
1. Automotive
2. Fast Food Restaurants
3. Pharmaceutical companies
What are the advantages of radio advertising?
-local
-flexible
-targets audience
-low cost
-high exposure & high reach
-portable & ubiquitous
what are the disadvantages of radio advertising?
-audio only
-background medium
-short message life
-fragmented audience
what are the advantages of tv advertising?
-visual & audio
-mass appeal
-high exposure & high reach
-ubiquitous
-ads blend with content
-variety
-entertaining
-persuasive
-emotional
what are the disadvantages of tv advertising?
-channel-surfing, zipping & zapping
-VCRs, DVRs
-fragmented audience
-difficult to target
-not portable
-high cost
-clutter
where does the majority of money for cable companies come from?
Subscriptions! Advertising comes second.
what are the advantages of cable advertising?
-visual & audio
-select audience
-upscale
-variety
-low cost
-seasonal advantage
-local advantage
-media mix
what are the disadvantages of cable advertising?
-zipping & zapping, channel-surfing
-fragmented audience, low ratings
-lack of penetration
-churn
Name the different types of internet advertising
-banner ads
-pop-ups, pop-unders
-extramercials, webmercials
-flyouts, transparencies, floaters
-product placement, buzz/viral marketing, advertorials
-spam & online spying
what are the advantages of internet advertising
-worldwide marketplace
-targeting consumers
-exposure & run time
-low production costs
-updating & changing ad copy
-prestige
-competition
-quick links to purchase
what are the disadvantages of internet advertising
-hidden persuasion
-creative restrictions
-fragmentation
-unreliable audience measurement
-questionable content
name the different kinds of advertising agencies & describe each
-full service agencies: provide all advertising functions
-creative boutiques: focus on creating the ads & campaigns
-media-buying services: focus on placement of messages in media
-interactive/cyber agencies: focus on new media & interactive platforms
what are some criticisms of advertising?
-encourages avariciousness & materialism
-reinforces stereotypes
-exploits children
-is invasive and pervasive
describe a Creative Strategy of advertising
More narrative based. Use of image ads more frequent.
from a business perspective, what crucial roles does advertising play?
-identifies target audience
-differentiates products
-generates revenue
-shows benefits of product
-helps brand product