Into to business management

Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories have been extended by
job enrichment
Explain the distinction between what Herzberg called motivators and hygiene factors?
motivators give the employees productivity and satisfaction. hygiene factors dissatisfactions the employees and doesn’t give then long-term motivation.
The idea that workers try to maintain equity between inputs and outputs compared to others in similar positions
equity theory
describe the parts of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Physicological needs- food, water, shelter
safety need- home
social needs- acceptance
esteem- knowledgement
self-actualization- develop full potential
setting ambitious but attainable goals can motivate workers and improve performance if the goals are accepted
goal-setting theory
what are the similarities and differences between taylor’s time-motion studies and Mayo’s Hawthorne studies?
Taylor’s time motion studies measured outputs. while Mayo’s study brought behavioral management.
How did Mayo’s findings influence scientific management?
money was not a primary motivator. these new assumptions led up to behavioral motivations
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth developed the theory that every job can be broken down into elementary motion.
principle of motion economy
Taylor’s four key principles
– study how a job is perform
-codify the best methods in rules
-chose workers who skills matches the rules
-Establish a fair level of performance and pay
The theory of motivation is based on unment human needs from basic physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, to self-actualzation needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
*******Pysiological and safety needs are the world’s workers struggle to meet.
conducted a series of experiments designed to measured the effect of working conditions on worker productivity?
elton mayo
the study of workers doing things and from teaching them the work
the study of workers doing things and from teaching them the work
scientific management
these studies became the basic for human-based management
elton mayo
something given to you by someone else recognition for good work
extrinsic reward
identified the tendency for people to behave differently when they know they are being studied.
Elton Mayo
father of scientific management
frederick taylor
find comment
encourage it
focus on common goals
job of a manager
develop ideas that every job could be down into a series of elementary motions……
frank and lillian gilbreth
personal satisfaction when you perform well and complete goals
intrinsic reward
Hawthorne studies test the degree of lighting associated with productivity.
Elton mayo theory
crated time-motion studies to measure outputs over time
frederick taylor
Herzberg’s theory of motivating factors causes employees to be productive and give the satisfaction
Make work more interesting and motivating by moving employees to one job to another
job rotation
task must be performed to complete a job and the time to do each task.
time-motion studies
combines a series of tasks into one challenging assignments
job enlargement
a system of goal setting and implementation involving a cycle of discussion, review, and evaluation of objectives among top and middles level managers
McGregor proposed manager’s had two different sets of assupmtions concerning workers. McGregor called them _______________________ and _______________________-
theory x and theory y
how are gerneration x managers likely to be different from their baby boomers predecessors?
Generation X managers raised cruel while Baby Boomers experience economic prosperity
His findings lead to new assumptions about employees, including the idea that pay is not the only motivator for workers
elton mayo
why is open communication so important in building effective self-managed teams
open communication works for both top managers and team members understand the objectives and work together to get it done.
discovered that worker productivity could increase despite adverse conditions
Elton Mayo
What are the key elements involved in expectancy theory
can i accomplish the task
what is my reward
is my reward worth it
what are the variables in reinforcement theory
positives reinforcement- praises, pay increase, recognition
negative reinforcement- reduced pay, lay off, firing
Believed the way to improve productivity was to scientifically study the most efficient ways ” best way” to do things, then teach people those methods.
develop the principle of scientific management
frederick taylor
what is theory x
assume that workers doesn’t want to work and doesn’t want to be here. Has to be forced to get the work done.
what is theory y
assume that the workers does want to be here and motivated to get the work done.
what is theory Z?
the hybrid of both type A and type J.
The principle of motion economy was based on his theory
frank and lillian gilbreth
what are the factors called motivators?
advancement, achievement, and recognition
what ate hygiene factors
working condition and company policies
what characteristics of work affect motivation and performance?
skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback
name 2 forms of job enrichments that increases motivation
job enlargement and job rotation
the tendency of people behaving differently when they know they being studied
Hawthorne effects
What is frederick taylor known for?
father of scientific management, the creator of time-motion studies.
what led to the more human managerial style?
elton mayo and the hawthorne studies
what were the various levels of needs identified by maslow’s hierarchy of needs
physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self -actualization needs
discovered that when workers are involved in planning and decision-making, the workers are more motivated
Elton Mayo
Herzberg’s theory of motivating factors cause dissatisfaction if missing, but do not motivate employees if increased
Hygiene factor
Found that workers were motivated an informal atmosphere where they could interact with supervisions
Elton mayo
the theory that positive and negative reinforcers motivate a person to behave a certain way.
reinforcement theory
Believed people would be motivated primarily by money
Frederick taylor
indicates the amount of effort employees exert on a specific task depends on their expectations of the outcome
expectancy theory