Interpersonal communications chapter 6

Nonverbal example of self-disclosure
Cross to show ones faith
Social penetration theory
Altman and Taylor. -self-disclosure usually increases gradually as people develop their relationships.
Six dimensions of social penetration theory
1. Depth 2. Breadth 3. Frequency 4. Duration 5. Valence 6. Veracity
Disclosure-liking hypothesis
Predicts when a sender discloses to a receiver, the receiver will like the sender more. -stronger among acquaintances
Liking-disclosure hypothesis
Predicts that people will disclose more to receivers they like.
Dyadic effect
Reciprocal self- disclosure, vehicle by which people build close relationships. Reciprocal self-disclosure occurs when a person reveals information and the partner responds by offering information that is at a similar level of intimacy. -when people first meet they start out with surface information and then go into more personal stories
Risks associated with self-disclosure
– makes us vulnerable and opens us up to criticism
– people who lack social skills prefer to self-disclose online
-fear of exposure or rejection, angry attacks, loss of control, and loss of individuality.
Petronio’s communication privacy management theory
How individuals maintain privacy boundaries. -rooted in the assumption that people set up boundary structures as a way to control the risks inherent in disclosing private information.
Boundary structures
Based on two elements: ownership and permeability.
Ownership- they have the right to choose who has access to it.
Permeability- how freely people allow others to share information they disclose about themselves.
Three principles of communication privacy theory
1. Rules for communication management are influenced by five factors: culture, personality, relational factors, sex differences, and individual motivation.
2. Successful boundary management requires cooperation between people.
3. Co-owners of information experience boundary turbulence from time to time.
What percentage of college students can identify a relational secret?
95%
Whole family secrets
Held by the whole family and kept from outsiders
Intra-family secrets
Some family members have secrets they they keep from other family members
Individual secrets
Information is held by a single individual and kept from other family members
Motivations for keeping a relational secret?
Relationship-based, individual-based, and information-based
Relationship-based motivation
Desire for relationship protection. Some fear abandonment by their partner.
Individual-based emotions
To protect themselves, some topics make them “look bad”
Information-based motivation
Based on the information they expect to receive from the other person.
Three times topic avoidance takes place
1. When romantic relationships are escalating. 2. During family transitions 3. When a young person matures into adulthood.
Standards of openness hypothesis
Peoples perceptions of how much their partners avoiding influences satisfaction more than a partners actual avoidance. Comes across as a sign of a bad relationship.
Hyperaccessability
When particular memories are especially accessible to us, when they are at the tip of our thoughts.
Rebound effect
People can temporarily suppress thoughts about a negative event if they are away from the event (or the person who caused it) thoughts will come flooding back as soon as something trigger their memory
Fever model of self-disclosure
People who are distressed about a problem or who think about a problem a lot are much more likely to reveal thoughts and feelings about the problem than are those not experiencing anxiety about an issue
Negative consequences of keeping a secret
Hyper accessibility, rebound effect, harmful to the self esteem, anxiety, impacts the quality of interaction with the person whom the secret is being kept, stress, aggression
Positive consequences of keeping a secret
Secret keeping in teens is beneficial to helping them find their identity, may increase cohesion in the people keeping the secret.
Positive consequences for telling a secret
Reduces psychological or physical problems, helps deter hyper accessibility, leads to resolution of secrets
Negative consequences for telling a secret
Elicit a negative reaction from listener, help person maintain a privacy boundary, revealing would be seen as betrayal by others
People reveal secrets based on these questions
1. How badly do I need to reveal this information? 2. What will be the outcome? 3. How risky is the disclosure? 4. How private is the information? 5. How much control do I have over my emotions