Interpersonal Communication

Why we communicate
Social Needs
Physical Needs
Identify Needs
Practical Goals
Physical Needs
We communicate because
-physical isolation from people is not healthy.
– to develop positive relationships with other people
– communication effects physical health
Identity Needs
-Through communication we learn who are are.
– Without it we have no sense of ourselves
Social needs
-Communicating satisfy our social needs
-needs of pleasure, affection, companionship, escape, relaxation and control
Instrumental goals
Getting others to behave in the way we want
career success
the ability to speak and listen effectively
Two ways to process communication
Linear Communication
Transactional communication
Linear communication
-What A Sender does to A Receiver-
(A one way Communication)
A Sender- the one who creates the message
Encodes- Puts thoughts into words
A Message- the info being transmitted
sending it through A Channel- in which the message passes to A Receiver- the person attending the message
Who Decodes- makes sense of the message,
while contending with the Noise- distractions
Transactional Communication
-A Communicator-
People who SEND and RECEIVE messages simultaneously
Communication
is a transactional process involving people who occupy different but overlapping environments and creates a relationship through the exchange of messages.
Environments
The field of experiences that affects how we understand others- personal experiences and our varios locations
Communication can be
Intentional or Unintentional
Is irreversible
Is impossible not to communicate
Unrepeatable
Misconceptions of Communication
-communication doesn’t always share the same understanding.
-more communication is not always better
– no single person or vent cause another reaction
-Communication will not solve all problems
Types of Interpersonal Communication
Quantitative-
Qualitative-
Quantitative
includes any interaction between to people
Qualitative
Occurs when people treat one another as unique individuals- no matter the context. Good quality communication.
The opposite of interpersonal communication
Impersonal communication
when the quality of interaction is the main focus
Features of Qualitative interpersonal communication
-irreplaceability-
-Interdependence-
– Disclosure-
– Intrinsic Rewards-
irreplaceability
relationships that can not be replaced or recreated
Interdependence
when the other person life effects you, not easy to brush off emotions
Disclosure
in a interpersonal relationship we reveal thoughts and feelings about ourselfs.
Intrinsic rewards
we find spending time in communication personally rewarding.
computer mediated communication
communicating through Text, email, ect.
Communication Competence
Achieving ones goals in a mannar that enhances or maintains relationships.
There is no
Ideal way to communicate
Competence is
situational
Competence is
relational
Competence can
be learned
Characteristics of Competent Communicators
– Pick from a Wide range of Behaviors
– Skilled at performing behaviors
-Cognitive Complexity; the ability to construct frameworks for viewing an issue.
-Empathy
-Self-Monitoring
-Commitment
Self-Concept
your emotional state
Self-Concept
your values
Self-Concept
your physical features
Self- Esteem
Self-concept and evaluations of Self-Worth
Your Personality
ways you think and behave across a variety of situation
Personality is apart of our
Genetic makeup
Personality Traits
willingness to communicate
verbal aggression,
Extroversion
shyness
Self- Concepts
Set perceptions you hold about yourself
Personality traits are a matter of
Degree
Your Self-Esteem
determines How you FEEL abou t the way you relate to others.
Self- Esteem
Leads to the different ways of thinking about communication
Messages
play the most important role in shapwing how we regard ourselves
Ego-Busting reflected appraisal
helps us to fight feeling of unlove
and invaluable
Social Comparions
evaluating ourselves by comparing ourselves with others
Self concept is
subjective
Culture
individualistic and collectivist forces that influence self
Self-Fulfilling prophecy
Determines how you see yourself in the present but also influence your future behavior and that of others.
Identity management
communication strategies people use
to influence how others view them.
-Construct Single consisten identities-
High self monitors
aware of their identity management behaviors
Reasons for managing others
to gain compliance of others
Face to face interaction
We can manage our pubic face by
Manner-setting-appearance
Mediated Communication
the manage of our own impressions
by writing notes, drafting a resume, email
Comptent communication
choosing honesty as the best face
significant others
people who’s opinions we especially value
Perceived Self
The person you honesty believe yourself to be
Many stimuli and intense stimuli influence which perception
your Selection
Figure- Ground
Organization-Organizing the figure from the ground
Stereotyping
exaggerated generalization
Punctuation
determination of Cause and effect in a series of interactions
Interpret
making sense of our selected and organized perceptions
Negotiation
The influence and shared perspective
Physiological Influences
Age, Health, Fatigue, Hunger, Bio
feminine and masculine- two separate sets of behavior
Combination of masculine and feminie
Self-Concept
A person with high self-esteem; will have high opinions of others
A persons with Low-esteem is likely to have low opinions of others
Attribution
Term to describe the process of attaching meaning to behavior.
Self-serving bias
judge ourselfs in the most generous terms
The halo effect
The tendency to form an overall positive impression of a person on the basis of ones positive characteristic
Three elements of perception checking
A description of behavior you noticed
two possible interpretations of the behavior
request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior
Nonverbal congruency
Nonverbal behavior reflects the open-mindedness of your words
Low-Context culture
straightforward approaches of perception checking at the best chance of working
Cognitive Complexity
The ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue
Signs
have a direct connection with the things they represent
Symbolic
Signs and they things they represent
Langauge is like
Plumbing- we pay attention to it when something goes wrong
Semantic Rules
Assign meaning to symbols
Semantic misunderstandings
When people assign different meanings to the same words
Equivocal Language
statements that have more than one commonly accepted definition
Syntactic Rules govern
Grammar of language
Pragmatic Rules
decide how to interpret messages in a given context
Convergence
Adapting one speech style to math that of others
Verbal communication style differ in
their degree of formality
whether they are elaborate or succinct
in their directness
the primary function of nonverbal communication
Relational
Signals turn-taking
Nonverbal Communication
regulates verbal communication